Users' diaries

Recent diary entries

New tool to sync GTFS to OSM released

Posted by Branko Kokanovic on 26 January 2021 in English (English).

TL;DR I wrote new console app that takes GTFS as an input and tells you exact changes you need to do in OSM to make it as close to GTFS as possible. Head to source to start using it.

Try it out on your GTFS and let me know how it went! I am open to suggestions, new ideas and new checks!


Purpose of this tool is to help find errors and differences between GTFS and OSM data. It will also help point to errors in PTv2 routes in OSM. It covers wide range of errors, tag checks, geometry checks… (when I say “wide”, I really mean it! - check to keep me honest, I am really proud what you can check today).

Once you import data in OSM (or when new version of GTFS data is released), you can use this tool to check if all data from GTFS is imported in OSM correctly and what are differences.

Tool is heavily relying on PTv2 spec and do not try to deviate from it. One would might say it is “opinionated”:)

This tool is not general-purpose PTv2 quality assurance tool, even though it points to a lot of PTv2 errors in OSM. It is handy if you are OK with console output and quick iterations as you can grep it, cron it, sed it as you like. Check this wiki for other great tools.

Why new tool

Belgrade, Serbia released open GTFS data and I wanted to conflate it to OSM (as an authorative dataset). However, none of the tools could scratch my itch. PTNA is awesome tool and Toni was great to onboard Belgrade, and while it shows errors, I didn’t have level of control I wanted. Our western neighbors in Croatia also developed a tool named Triglav. I experimented with it, but it was currently not generic enough to accept another city and I didn’t know Elixir enough to adopt it to Belgrade:) I tried to fiddle with GO-Sync, but I really didn’t have any control and it was that non-intuitive that I didn’t know how to even start (and yes, I read documentation:D) So, basically, that was whole ecosystem I can find. So, I started writing it as a way to help GTFS=>OSM syncing with a goal to make it usable for any GTFS in the world. I think I am halfway there:)

What’s next

I would like to see some better output. Some HTML dump with some fancy <table> that can do filtering, or even show Leaflet map with GTFS and OSM route for visual inspection. This is ideal task for beginner. If you want to start learning Python, or deepen your knowledge of it, I am willing to mentor you!

Additionally, this tool could be used to automate commits (if you are brave enough and you get sign off from import mailing list and local community:).

Location: Dorcol, Београд (Стари град), Stari Grad Urban Municipality, City of Belgrade, Central Serbia, 11158, Serbia

Cartography an introduction

Posted by Tomas Straupis on 26 January 2021 in English (English).

The British Cartographic society has published a short free book about Cartography. It gives and overview of the purpose of cartography and it’s main principles. Quick but very worth read for all mappers.

You can find it here:

Tracciare i Sentieri della Basilicata

Posted by tachikaze on 26 January 2021 in Italian (Italiano).


Vorrei cominciare a tracciare tutti sentieri boschivi, tratturi, strade bianche della Basilicata. Dal primo gennaio ho messo su un sito Sentieri Lucani dove raccoglierò tutto ciò che riguarda il progetto. Sarebbe una sorta di Mapathon ma, per adesso, sono solo. E non c’è nessun “evento” correlato. Piuttosto sarebbe una cosa lenta e continuativa. Vorrei fare in modo che tutti le tratte del “Sentiero Lucano” e “Sentiero 2 mari” siano presenti su OSM. Ecco il link al sito della regione

Prima mossa

Ho cominciato a mappare i sentieri di Bosco Magnano (anche quelli non facenti parte dei tracciati della regione). Alcuni sono pieni di rovi (e ho deciso di non aggiungerli). Altri, anche se difficoltosi, si riescono ad attraversa. Cerco di usare tutti i tag per definire le strade.

Location: Contrada La Torretta, Chiaromonte, Potenza, Basilicata, 85033, Italia

Sidewalks by popularity

Posted by Hungerburg on 25 January 2021 in English (English). Last updated on 26 January 2021.

[In continuation of „Sidewalks by length“ blog post.] As requested there, below chart for all of the world. Also chart for the US East coast, where, by their length, a whopping quarter of all of the worlds footway=sidewalk are located. 60% of the whole earth set is in the US alone (excluding Hawaii and Alaska.) As clearly can be seen, in the US this method trumps the other one, of mapping sidewalks as a property of the streets, they are part of.

For the the world outside of the US, the ratio is not as decisive, but rather more on par. Mapping sidewalks as footways seems, to use a highbrow term in the sense it is sanctioned by the Oxford English Dictionary, prevalent in US mapping.

For a popularity contest, the total alone is sufficient to declare a winner. To determine popularity in this contest though, where every voter has an unlimited number of votes, the number of voters is of interest too, and also the distribution in the number of votes spent per voter.

This requires a bit of hand-waving, errm, a little overpass-turbo experiment, first zoom out to all of the world, sorry, that probably will timeout the query, so settle in on the area from Richmond to Boston -

OHSOME counts 20,000 km in cumulated length, overpass returns 160,000 objects by 2,460 users, which might not be too far off (average length 125m). Paste the data in a spreadsheet and do a bit of more hand-waving - 50% of the data was last modified by 1.6% of the users. Not quite a few have spent quite a lot of votes, so to say. Sidewalk mapping seems to be popular with a select few, most prolific individuals. In statistics speak: The mean being ten times the median being six times the mode, it’s a heavily skewed distribution, where practically all of the contributions come from the outliers.

How often are objects with a footway tag modified? Panning around the area, many are at version 1. Panning also reveals, that sidewalk mapping is quite concentrated and vast swaths of urban space have no sidewalks at all, not even ordinary footways alongside of streets. On the other hand, e.g. Boston even has “street” relations, that link sidewalks to streets.

The overpass method is not expected to bring up anything useful, when applied to the other mapping scheme, as the base objects carrying the sidewalk tag are expected to have seen several revisions with the addition of the property not necessarily being latest.

Plot World Plot East Coast Plot Rest of the World Plot South America

# filter changed
filterFootway = 'type:way and (\
(footway=sidewalk) \

    # additional coordinates used
    "World":             "-180,-60,180,80", # took 1:10 min:s
    "East Coast":        "-83.7,23.9,-66.4,47.4",
    "Upper East Coast":  "-78.49,36.97,-70.11,42.94",
    "Not North America": "-25,-50,180,80|-110.6,-55.7,-29.2,24.5",
    "South America":     "-110.6,-55.7,-29.2,24.5",

Why I am mapping

Posted by letumb on 25 January 2021 in English (English).

I am mapping because I want to map the world better. For a better experience.

better map - better experience

I want to add veryfied information and help every user using OSM or a connected application.

Position statement for 2021 OpenStreetMap U.S. board election

Posted by Minh Nguyen on 25 January 2021 in English (English).

I’m running for reelection to the OpenStreetMap U.S. board of directors.

For those who don’t know me, I’ve been contributing to the OpenStreetMap project as a volunteer since April 2008, mostly as a mapper and an advocate for the project. I love pondering tagging dilemmas and seeding the map with a level of detail that pleasantly surprises users and gets them off the sidelines. (As for my day job, I’m proud that the iOS software I write at Mapbox is powered by OSM data, but I’m my own board member and mapper.)

In my position statement last year, I wrote about the need to build bridges. Since then, OSMUS and the OSMF achieved normalized relations via a local chapter agreement. Without the distraction of local chapter negotiations, we can look forward to partnering with OSMF in forging less obvious relationships that bring more participants into the OSM project.

I had looked forward to meeting many of you at this year’s State of the Map U.S. conference in Tucson. Instead, we responded to the upheaval of 2020 by organizing the Connect conference and continuing a series of Virtual Mappy Hours that ranged from imports to issues of social justice – all at a safe distance online. I hope you found these events to be as worthwhile (and as much of an escape) as I did.

As a board member, I arguably had the least hands-on role in each of these team efforts. My job has been to connect them to the bigger long-term picture. It’s important for me to give our executive director, Maggie, the room to get the implementation details right but also be available for a gut check or proofread as needed.

In 2021, that bigger long-term picture becomes more concrete. Charter programs and our collaborations with non-profits, the public sector, and corporations are evolving OSMUS beyond an organization that merely organizes events. As we give these efforts a chance to blossom, we must also prioritize the health of the existing community. There are still many hurdles keeping people from getting more deeply involved in OSM’s decisionmaking and organizing. As a board member, I would support and advise Maggie in discovering and addressing these barriers.

I encourage you to read the other candidates’ position statements, hear more from us at the upcoming town hall on Wednesday, and cast your vote by February 7th. In addition to voting for the board, please remember the part about the proposed change to the bylaws. Thank you for your consideration!

capk11, CC BY-SA)

Location: Farmington Hills, Oakland County, Michigan, United States

OpenStreetMap Philippines 2020

Posted by maning on 25 January 2021 in English (English).


The pandemic changed the OSM-PH community plans for the year in 2020. In person meetups became online and we had to adjust our big plans for this new approach. I collected the publication materials we posted in our social media account to get a broad sense of what we did last year.

The montage above is a small collection of them. Some highlights.

  • Online events - we had more events than any other previous year. Online platforms allowed us to organize and reach more people. Most of these events were organized not entirely by the community but invitations from various groups (local and international). Pista ng Mapa, our major community event also adopted an online format and a surprising success!
  • Mapping - we had the highest number of unique contributors (10k) than previous years. The mapping activities completed baseline information in many areas notably HOT Philippines’ initiatives in Pampanga and Quezon City. Mikko and several mappers lead the effort to improve coverage to the top unmapped towns and completed several towns in Mindanao.
  • Recognitions - groups and individuals within our community were recognized for their mapping and community building efforts. UPRI Youthmappers were recognized for inspiring women in mapping and building mapping metrics. 3 Filipino mappers (feye, Mikko and Arnalie) become part of the growing HOT voting memberships. 2 long time community members (Maning for HOT and Eugene for OSMF) were elected as board members in two organizations crucial to the project growth.
  • Reclaiming our stories - Despite all our efforts within our local community, stories about how we got here are not amplified to the wider open mapping community. Biases and traditional perspectives on map making continues to undermine what we are trying to build: a more open and inclusive community. As a local community, we continue to question our own motivations and assumptions. David Garcia puts this nicely in 2 questions: “who are you making maps for?” and “who are you making maps with?”.

Thank you to all who made this possible. We’ve done so much last year and we are excited for this year.

The last point will continue to be our focus for the days and months ahead.

Location: Amihanan, Cardona, Rizal, Calabarzon, 1950, Philippines

Petroglyph of Running Woman

Posted by c tito young on 24 January 2021 in English (English). Last updated on 25 January 2021.

At first I saw her as Virgin Mary, and then when I looked again, it seemed again as Virgin Mary. The vail, the long skirt, the positions of arms, the movement, that profile. It simply didn’t seem to quite add up, with no notable cross or other iconic shapes, I ended up calling her the “Running Woman”. You decide.

As if someone in our more recent past may have been influenced but its not an accidental ground stain. I actually targeted this area to find this 50m tall subject, again only able to see from a very high vantage point.

Location: Chiquerillo, San Juan, Changuillo, Province of Nasca, Ica, Peru

Petroglyph of Fire

Posted by c tito young on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

This one is a little weird. At first it looks like a bunch of random lines going nowhere and coming from nowhere, but they were connected and only after establishing the location of the Man with the decapitated head, are you able to discern its meaning. You are looking at a campfire from a side view, and winds are barely blowing. Very still hot flame low oxygen kind of fire. You can get the sense of crackle as wood is super scare, so you are burning dead brush.

Location: La Vinita, Changuillo, Province of Nasca, Ica, Peru

Petroglyph of the Landing Strip

Posted by c tito young on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

This landing strip is divided by a huge scar in the ground and had to be built as two massive projects trying to connect accurately over this massive ground scar. Located West then South of the Valley with Elongated Heads.

Location: La Banda, El Ingenio, Province of Nasca, Ica, Peru

Petroglyph of the Giant Salmon

Posted by c tito young on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

A giant fish, with eye, gill, fins, and tail all splayed out on a hill. Cannot likely be seen from the ground. Located to the west of the Valley of the Elongated Heads its leads the way to turn southward to see The Landing Strip.

Location: La Vinita, Changuillo, Province of Nasca, Ica, Peru

First Day Helping

Posted by AlephNaught on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

Yesterday was my first day, I think I found a new hobby. This is very enjoyable and I feel accomplished when I make a difference. GIS is a great technology.

Cartografía de la violencia en Moroleón y Uriangato

Posted by Periquillo on 24 January 2021 in Spanish (Español).

Estoy creando un mapa para registrar la ubicación de los atentados homicidas (violencia homicida) en los municipios de Moroleón y Uriangato (en México). Estoy utilizando Umap y Wordpress.


Man with the Decapitated Head

Posted by c tito young on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

I noticed it to the west of the Valley of the Elongated Heads. Its obviously a cadaver, with a recently decapitated head near a fire. I think there is a lot more to this story. I am diving into it. I am still unsure how the body is arranged here and still getting more nuances on the surrounding shapes.

Position Statement for 2021-2022 OpenStreetMap-US Board of Directors Election

Posted by Russbiggs on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

I first contributed to OpenStreetMap in 2014 in a small town in rural Italy where I briefly lived/worked after finding it wasn’t mapped on any platform. After seeing the small town appear on the map I was hooked. Since 2017, I have led a monthly OpenStreetMap meetup, MapABQ, in Albuquerque, New Mexico focused on contributing to OpenStreetMap in New Mexico, an often overlooked area in the United States. Since the group’s inception we’ve engaged with existing mappers around New Mexico and recruited a number of new mappers, while greatly increasing data coverage in New Mexico on OpenStreetMap. Professionally I am a software engineer focusing on geospatial data. I’ve developed tools around OpenStreetMap with Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) and use OpenStreetMap data in my current role with SharedStreets.

I am running for the OpenStreetMap US board of directors for 2021-2022 and I have the following priorities:

Support of local communities

I believe OpenStreetMap thrives best in local communities and supporting the growth and sustainability of local groups is mutually beneficial to OpenStreetMap US. Scholarships to State of the Map US and microgrants for specific projects are great ways to increase participation and engagement from often overlooked regions in the US.

Sustainability of the organization

To ensure the success of the executive director role additional paid positions within OpenStreetMap US may assist in the administration and operations of the organization. Paid roles require consistent funding and long term planning to be fully effective. I seek to promote diverse funding, increase membership, and further cultivate existing donors to ensure financial sustainability.

Increased engagement

A culture of diversity and inclusion is core to a healthy and growing membership and participation within OpenStreetMap US. OpenStreetMap should reflect the full diversity of the areas it maps and this will be only be achieved through deliberate focus and commitment. OpenStreetMap US took an important step implementing a Code of Conduct recently and I support building on this foundation to develop an inclusive and diverse community.

Feel free to reach out with any questions.

Location: Downtown Albuquerque, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 87102, United States

One Week Into the OSMF 2021 Survey...

Posted by apm-wa on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

The OSM Foundation Board of Directors needs your feedback on actions it took in 2020 plus your sentiments regarding controversial questions, and asks for some demographic data (optional) so we can understand better both the survey data and the structure of the community. Coincidentally, the survey is divided into “Feedback”, “Community Sentiment”, and “Demographic Data (optional)”.

After seven days, the OSMF 2021 Survey of the OSMverse has received 1,918 responses in total, of which 1,424 are “full” responses (that is, they include the optional demographic data).

A sum of 1,918 total responses means the survey features a 2.24% confidence interval at the 95% confidence level, and a 2.95% confidence interval at the 99% confidence level. The survey features a confidence interval under 3%! This is good validation of the sample, though I suspect it still suffers from a European and North American bias. Male respondents also dominate the sample quite heavily. Therefore: please spread the word, especially to colleagues in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and to women and non-binary mappers! And data users! And software developers! And systems folks! Everyone in the OSM community!

We are shooting for a 2% confidence interval at the 95% confidence level, for which we need a minimum sample of 2,401 “full” respondents, and preferably they will be distributed geographically. Since about a quarter of respondents so far have declined to provide demographic data, this implies we need to hit 3,201 “total” responses or thereabouts.

So please encourage your mapping friends and colleagues, data users, anyone involved in OSM you can think of, to take the survey! It only takes about 5 to 10 minutes to answer 18 questions, and so far is available in 16 languages (English, Chinese (Traditional; Taiwan), French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese).

Consideration for OSMUS Board

Posted by DW2515 on 24 January 2021 in English (English).

Who am I?

Hello, My name is Daniela Waltersdorfer, although in the OSM Community I’m known by some of you as Dani. I had the pleasure of serving as a OSMUS Board member for this past, and very difficult, year. I work in the Transportation Industry and run, with my awesome two co-hosts, Maptime Boston. In 2019 I joined in on the OSM US Code of Conduct Committee, developed to lead efforts to foster a diverse and inclusive OSM US community and this past 2020 we published the first ever OSMU US Code of Conduct (you can find more information here: )

Why am I running?

If you’d like to read my Manifesto for 2020, you can find it here: As you probably read, I am passionate about making this awesome community more welcoming, regardless of your technical skills. 2020 proved difficult to make these connections in-person- we didn’t have our beloved and biggest event of the year, State of the Map. However, although discouraging at times, this did not stop the Board in brainstorming with Maggie ways to increase grow our community. For more transparency, something I really value, I’ll share about my big expectation. I had hopes of creating a bigger connection between the transportation world and OSM US, especially with the private sector. You see, I work for a transportation consultant firm, meaning I work closely with cities, MPOs, States, and sometimes federal agencies in making transportation planning and engineering decisions. For various projects, OSM data has proven to be quite exquisite and impactful. So why not give back to this awesome project? Unfortunately, the pandemic slowed down some of my goals of creating a more connected community, especially when it comes to sponsorships and funding, for it has impacted many individuals and companies negatively in the economic realm.

Having been on the Board during a year full of obstacles though has taught me that there are always new paths to explore, new ideas to expand, and new projects to get done. I am a full supporter of the Amendment to the OpenStreetMap-US Bylaws (extending board terms), especially now, after having been a member for one year. By being on the Board for a consecutive second year, I believe I can continue to push our community in the right direction; I want to work to expand our footprint and encourage others to come, I want OSM US to be a diverse and inclusive community where all feel safe.

Thank you for taking the time to read this and considering me to represent you.

Please feel free to reach out should you have any questions. Slack: @DWaltersdorfer Twitter: @DWaltersdorfer

¿Quién Soy?

Hola, Mi nombre es Daniela Waltersdorfer, aunque muchos en la comunidad de OSM US me conocen como Dani. He tenido el placer de servir como Miembro del Directorio de OSMUS este pasado año, el cual fue muy difícil para todos. Trabajo en la industria de transporte y lidero Maptime Boston justo a mis otros queridos anfitriones. En el 2019 decidí ser voluntario del Comité de Código de Conducta de OS US, el cual fue desarrollado para promover una comunidad de OSM US más inclusiva y diversa y en el 2020 publicamos el primer Código de Conducta de OSM US de la historia (puedes encontrar más información aquí: ( )

¿Por qué estoy postulándome?

Si te interesaría leer mi manifiesto del 2020, lo podrás encontrar aquí (sé que no está en español, pero por favor contáctame si deseas que lo traduzca): Soy una persona muy apasionada por hacer que esta comunidad le dé la bienvenida a más miembros, sin importar el nivel de capacidades o habilidades técnicas. El 2020 fue difícil para crear conexiones personales, algo por lo que expresé mucho interés en mi manifiesto anterior, pues no tuvimos nuestro evento más querido y grande del año, State of the Map. Sin embargo, aunque algo desalentador, esto no detuvo al Directorio a pensar y pensar junto a Maggie en maneras para hacer crecer nuestra comunidad. Algo que yo valoro mucho es la transparencia, así que compartiré sobre otra expectativa que tuve para el año pasado. Yo tenía la esperanza de hacer una conexión más grande entre el mundo del transporte y OSM US, especialmente con el sector privado. Verás, yo trabajo para una firma de consultoría de transporte, lo cual quiere decir que trabajo mucho con ciudades, MPOs, estados y a veces agencias federales. Para muchos proyectos la data de OSM ha probado ser exitosa e impactante. Así que, ¿por qué no retribuir a este super proyecto? Desafortunadamente, la pandemia bajó el ritmo de algunas de mis metas para hacer una comunidad más conectada y unida, especialmente cuando se trata de patrocinios y financiamientos, pues ella [la pandemia] impactó negativamente a muchos individuos y compañías económicamente.

Haber estado en el Directorio durante un año lleno de obstáculos me ha enseñado que siempre hay nuevos caminos por explorar, nuevas ideas para expandir y nuevos proyectos por terminar. Yo creo mucho en la Enmienda para los estatutos de OpenStreetMap-US (extender los periodos del directorio), especialmente ahora, después de ser una miembro por un año. Al estar en el Directorio por un segundo año consecutivo, yo creo que podré seguir empujando por mi meta para hacer crecer nuestra comunidad por el camino correcto; quiero trabajar en expandir nuestra huella y animar a otros a unirse, quiero que OSM US sea una comunidad diversa e inclusiva donde todos nos sintamos seguros.

Gracias por tomarte el tiempo en leer mi manifiesto y considerarme para representarte.

Por favor contáctame si tienes alguna pregunta. Slack: @DWaltersdorfer Twitter: @DWaltersdorfer

Position Statement for 2021 OpenStreetMap-US Board election

Posted by frizatch on 23 January 2021 in Abkhazian (Аҧсуа). Last updated on 24 January 2021.

Hello All!

I made my first edit to the map in 2016 when I discovered OpenStreetMap through a Maptime group which I now organize. I guiltily admit I was unaware membership was an option for some time and didn’t officially join until a little over a year ago. Although I have few changesets to my name (most come from demos while I’m teaching others), I’m an enthusiastic supporter of OSM because I understand the immense potential of this project.

I work in an academic library on an urban campus as geospatial support for students and faculty. Through my position at the University of Colorado Denver, and through the MaptimeMileHigh meetup group I run, I spend much of my time introducing OpenStreetMap to interested mappers and data users. I have led HOTOSM mapathons for students and the community at large to introduce the humanitarian value of this unique crowd-sourced information. I enjoy seeing traditional GIS students get excited when they realize there is an entire world of the geospatial technology they’ve been missing.

Serving on the OpenStreetMap-US board, I hope to expand the awareness of OSM to students, faculty and community leaders as they work together using public data for public good. Through academic frameworks such as the Data to Policy Project (d2p), for which I’m the student and faculty liaison, OSM can shine as support for policy development. With more diverse contributors to the map recruited via community outreach and academic programs similar to d2p, OSM can be better used for research and evidence-based advocacy. With more people from different sectors of society understanding they can contribute data to the global dataset that is OSM, the more representative and complete that dataset will be.

I recognize the OpenStreetMap community is evolving quickly. Growing the community even more will require a solid organization and OSMUS seems to be on the right track. I am impressed with the work prior board members and our executive director, Maggie, have done in terms of transparency, finances, and norms. I look forward to supporting these efforts.

I am a scientist and outdoorsperson at heart. I have a degree in earth sciences, which led me to GIS hydrology projects, which then led to my geospatial career. As I mentioned, I’m now at an urban campus and my work is more human-centered than before. I’m excited to bring this background to help guide the U.S. chapter of the OpenStreetMap Foundation.

I’m happy to discuss anything that comes to your mind after reading my statement. Thanks for considering me!

OSMUS Slack: @fritz Twitter: @fritzgis

Other links of interest: SOTMUS 2019 talk, OSMUS Mappy Hour 2020 talk

Location: Auraria, Denver, Denver County, Colorado, 80217, Америка Еиду Аштатқәа


Posted by Sirirat Chaleerak on 23 January 2021 in Thai (ไทย).


Supplement to the Valley of the Elongated Heads.

Posted by c tito young on 23 January 2021 in English (English). Last updated on 24 January 2021.

I may have proved a point. Elaborate petroglyphs equal elaborate ground etching and the two go side by side. To the Southwest of the Valley of the Elongated heads is an array of geometry of accuracy that cannot be of chance. Line click off of each other, and set up a series of geometry. More and more as I am laying these geometries down I feel a culture that is doing anything and everything it can to appease gods for crop growing weather. No always are these glyphs of recent times but rather it seems to be built upon each other through generations. Could it be a marking of success, or failure like the stock market, but one for weather? Lines vs. Areas.. and some areas are really surround lines, but finished and unfinished. There is some of the lines that obviously connect, and others that are close, near misses or that the terrain fails to give much clues as to what used to be there.

2nd Entry:
How exciting to find additional glyphs to the East of the Valley of the Elongated Heads. Finding it substantiates the overall importance that these glyph geometries are part of symbols that start to unlock the Nazca geometric efforts. I am taken by yet the fresh and very different types of lines and how the geometric shapes interlock. Surprisingly, I didn’t see them before, but as I am identifying each one by one, some of the line escape the other lines and shapes giving way to a brand new area. Are they doing this as a desperate way to save their crops or are they after something else. Why is the secret so difficult to understand? The more dive into these weird and obscure lines, knowing they have been created over a period of around 2000 years at least, the more questions they have. What is their secret? Why are they really doing this? Why is the geometry so precise?

Location: Santa Elena, Changuillo, Province of Nasca, Ica, Peru