OpenStreetMap

Diary Entries in Chinese

Recent diary entries

漢字版本

最近有一个中國來的口座正規化KFC的標籤,舞的範圍有夠大,編輯變動的範圍猶閣有共臺灣包入去,予一寡QA工具攏無法度正常視覺化顯示變啥物魍,應該是 Overpass API 的限制造成的,愛手工檢查是毋是有真真正正共臺灣範圍的物件創到。伊的編輯留話的所在有特別強調無創「臺灣地區」的 KFC,我是感覺這敢有需要特別強調?

建議是講,雖然 QA 工具出問題,無法度確認是毋是有問題的編輯,雖然是弄一个國家範圍的物件,欲共舞的範圍創較細的,分幾若擺來編輯上傳,較袂引起誤解,嘛較簡單會當審核內容敢有問題。有法度閃避遮的問題,𠢕人嘛會當專心畫𪜶所在的物件,毋免予人感覺有問題愛閣開時間溝通討論。

臺灣雖然是小所在,嘛是有真濟辛辛苦苦拍拚骨力,維護圖資的圖客,足頂真依照事實,猶閣有眼前會當看著的物件來畫地圖。毋過不時有人欲來挑戰加上非事實的物件,強逼臺灣遮的人愛接受非在庄在地草地觀察會著的物仔。這个代誌是無遵守 OpenStreetMap 的現地觀察,才會當加入 OpenStreetMap 的 on the ground truth 原則

OpenStreetMap 親像𪜶的姊妹仔計畫 Wikipedia 仝款,是人人會當看著怪怪的物件,著會使修正,甚至實際上無存在的物仔嘛會當刣掉,毋免有較懸權限的口座來做。甚至較需要了解佮操作智識的 reverter 嘛毋免一定是管理員才會當做,有社群共識一般的口座就會使做。OpenStreetMap 計畫內是較平等的,無講一定欲予較資深的人較有資格,有理就好。

Tâi-lô pán-pún

Tsuè-kūn ū tsi̍t-ê Tiong-kok lâi-ê kháu-tsō chèng-kui-hòa KFC ê piau-tshiam, bú-ê huān-uî ū-kàu-tuā, pian-tsi̍p piàn-tōng ê huān-uî ū kā Tâi-uân pau-ji̍p-khì, hōo tsi̍t-kuá QA kang-kū lóng bô-huat-tōo tsìng-siông sī-kak-huà hián-sī pìnn-siánn-mn̍gh-báng, ing-kai-sī Overpass API ê hān-tsè tsō-sîng-ê, ài tshiú-kang kiám-tsa sī-m̄-sī ū tsin-tsin-tsiànn-tsiànn kā Tâi-uân huān-uî ê mn̍gh-kiānn tshòng-kàu. I-ê pian-tsi̍p lâu-uē ê sóo-tsāi ū ti̍k-pia̍t kiông-tiāu bô-tshòng “Tâi-uân tuē-khu” ê KFC, guá sī kám-kak tsē kám-ū su-iàu ti̍k-pia̍t kiông-tiāu?

Kiàn-gī sī-kóng, sui-jiân QA kang-kū tshut-būn-tê, bô-huat-tōo khak-jīn sī-m̄-sī ū-būn-tê ê pian-tsi̍p, sui-jiân sī lōng tsi̍t-ê kok-ka huān-uî ê mn̍gh-kiānn, bueh kā bú-ê huān-uî tshòng khah-suè–ê, hun kuí-nā-pái lâi pian-tsi̍p siōng-thuân, khah-buē ín-khí gōo-kái, mā khah-kán-tan ē-tàng sím-hi̍k luē-iông kám-ū būn-tê. Ū-huat-tōo siám-phiah tsia-ê būn-tê, gâu-lâng mā ē-tàng tsuan-sim uē in sóo-tsāi ê mn̍gh-kiānn, m̄-bián hőng kám-kak ū-būn-tê ài koh khui-sî-kan koo-thong thó-lūn.

Tâi-uân sui-jiân sī sió-sóo-tsāi, mā-sī 有 tsin-tsuē sin-sin-khóo-khóo phah-piànn kut-la̍t, uî-hōo tôo-tsu ê tôo-kheh, tsiok tíng-tsin i-tsiàu sū-si̍t, iáu-koh-ū gán-tsîng ē-tàng khuànn-tio̍h ê mn̍gh-kiānn lâi uē tuē-tôo. M̄-koh put-sî ū-lâng bueh-lâi thiau-tsiàn ka-siōng hui-sū-si̍t ê mn̍gh-kiānn, kiông-pik Tâi-uân tsia-ê lâng ài tsiap-siū hui tsāi-tsng tsāi-tuē tsháu-tuē kuan-tshat ē-tio̍h ê mn̍gh-á. tsit-ê tāi-tsì sī bô tsun-siú OpenStreetMap ê hiān-tuē kuan-tshat, tsiah ē-tàng ka-ji̍p OpenStreetMap ê on the ground truth guân-tsik.

OpenStreetMap tshin-tshiūnn in-ê tsí-bē-á kè-uē Wikipedia kâng-khuánn, sī jîn-jîn ē-tàng khuànn-tio̍h kuài-kuài ê mn̍gh-kiānn, tio̍h ē-sái siu-tsìng, sīm-tsì si̍t-tsè siōng bô-tsûn-tsāi ê mn̍gh-á mā ē-tàng thâi-tiāu, m̄-bián ū khah-kuân ê kháu-tsō lâi tsuè. Sīm-tsì sī khah su-iàu liáu-kái kah tshau-tsok tì-sik ê reverter mā m̄-bián it-tīng sī kuán-lí-uân tsiah ē-tàng tsuè, ū siā-kûn kiōng-sik it-puann ê kháu-tsō tō ē-sái tsuè. OpenStreetMap kè-uē lāi sī khah pîng-tíng-ê, bô-kóng it-tīng bueh hōo khah tsu-tshim ê lâng khah-ū tsu-keh, ū-lí tō-hó.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī pán-pún

Chòe-kūn ū chi̍t-ê Tiong-kok lâi-ê kháu-chō chèng-kui-hòa KFC ê piau-chhiam, bú-ê hoān-ûi ū-kàu-tōa, pian-chi̍p piàn-tōng ê hoān-ûi ū kā Tâi-oân pau-ji̍p-khì, hō͘ chi̍t-kóa QA kang-kū lóng bô-hoat-tō͘ chèng-siông sī-kak-hòa hián-sī pìⁿ-siáⁿ-mn̍gh-báng, eng-kai-sī Overpass API ê hān-chè chō-sêng-ê, ài chhiú-kang kiám-cha sī-m̄-sī ū chin-chin-chiàⁿ-chiàⁿ kā Tâi-oân hoān-ûi ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ chhòng-kàu. I-ê pian-chi̍p lâu-ōe ê só͘-chāi ū te̍k-pia̍t kiông-tiāu bô-chhòng “Tâi-oân tōe-khu” ê KFC, góa sī kám-kak chē kám-ū su-iàu te̍k-pia̍t kiông-tiāu?

Kiàn-gī sī-kóng, sui-jiân QA kang-kū chhut-būn-tê, bô-hoat-tō͘ khak-jīn sī-m̄-sī ū-būn-tê ê pian-chi̍p, sui-jiân sī lōng chi̍t-ê kok-ka hoān-ûi ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ, boeh kā bú-ê hoān-ûi chhòng khah-sòe–ê, hun kúi-nā-pái lâi pian-chi̍p siōng-thoân, khah-bōe ín-khí gō͘-kái, mā khah-kán-tan ē-tàng sím-he̍k lōe-iông kám-ū būn-tê. Ū-hoat-tō͘ siám-phiah chia-ê būn-tê, gâu-lâng mā ē-tàng choan-sim ōe in só͘-chāi ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ, m̄-bián hőng kám-kak ū-būn-tê ài koh khui-sî-kan ko͘-thong thó-lūn.

Tâi-oân sui-jiân sī sió-só͘-chāi, mā-sī 有 chin-chōe sin-sin-khó͘-khó͘ phah-piàⁿ kut-la̍t, ûi-hō͘ tô͘-chu ê tô͘-kheh, chiok téng-chin i-chiàu sū-si̍t, iáu-koh-ū gán-chêng ē-tàng khòaⁿ-tio̍h ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ lâi ōe tōe-tô͘. M̄-koh put-sî ū-lâng boeh-lâi thiau-chiàn ka-siōng hui-sū-si̍t ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ, kiông-pek Tâi-oân chia-ê lâng ài chiap-siū hui chāi-chng chāi-tōe chháu-tōe koan-chhat ē-tio̍h ê mn̍gh-á. chit-ê tāi-chì sī bô chun-siú OpenStreetMap ê hiān-tōe koan-chhat, chiah ē-tàng ka-ji̍p OpenStreetMap ê on the ground truth goân-chek.

OpenStreetMap chhin-chhiūⁿ in-ê chí-bē-á kè-ōe Wikipedia kâng-khóaⁿ, sī jîn-jîn ē-tàng khòaⁿ-tio̍h koài-koài ê mn̍gh-kiāⁿ, tio̍h ē-sái siu-chèng, sīm-chì si̍t-chè siōng bô-chûn-chāi ê mn̍gh-á mā ē-tàng thâi-tiāu, m̄-bián ū khah-koân ê kháu-chō lâi chòe. Sīm-chì sī khah su-iàu liáu-kái kah chhau-chok tì-sek ê reverter mā m̄-bián it-tēng sī koán-lí-oân chiah ē-tàng chòe, ū siā-kûn kiōng-sek it-poaⁿ ê kháu-chō tō ē-sái chòe. OpenStreetMap kè-ōe lāi sī khah pêng-téng-ê, bô-kóng it-tēng boeh hō͘ khah chu-chhim ê lâng khah-ū chu-keh, ū-lí tō-hó.

Location: 24.447, 119.839

漢字版

中國遐有人寫日記哼(hainn)有大量學生佇中南大學畫地圖,看起來是老師按學生畫學校附近,但是缺少 QA 的程序,予袂少有問題的資料無人插。這是早慢欲面對的問題,社群愛動員去修理,抑是畫甲傷䆀做理由攏刣刣掉矣。嘛會使揣 Data Working Group 協助,共講袂聽的口座封一寡時間,予社群成員有時間清理佮修正。

臺灣遮的經驗是,共一寡看起來是學生做學校指定作業的口座溝通,用變更集留話,通常是無回應的。對社群來講有時間就直接修改好勢,閣來研究𪜶是對佗位來的。無想欲改就攏總刣掉嘛無要緊,必要時予 Data Working Group 處理,處理無回應閣繼續編織的口座,至少無予問題擴大。

會記得臺灣遮上嚴重的底代是美光團,用 HOT Task Manager 佇咧畫彰化,雲林遐的建築,最後因為問題建築傷濟矣,無法度修改好勢,予 Data Working Group 資料攏刣刣掉。

其他的代猶閣有彰化遐學校學生的編輯團,一直毋知是佗位的學校咧畫。猶有人加上心理醫療場所的POI,嘛是有一寡問題,因為應該是共地址用 Google 轉成經維度,資料的授權有淡薄仔問題。

OSM Wiki有組織編輯指引,有團體愛編輯,著愛登記佇 Wiki 頁面,愛留𤆬頭的人聯絡資料,目的,佮時間。臺灣環境資訊協會的啉水地圖計畫就有留資料登記。組織編輯指引應該是 OpenStreetMap 生態系內底,會當參考佮遵守的指引,嘛會當參考別人是按怎處理的。

上好是揣著頭,共老師好好矣溝通,老師愛知影 OpenStreetMap 予袂少重要的網站使用,學生貢獻是愛頂真,袂使清彩處理。通常予學生畫較簡單的事物,親像講學校,徛家附近的店家,莫予學生畫傷複雜,傷大的範圍。

又閣有中國的環境無允准一般人來畫地圖,個人畫地圖是違反𪜶的法律。愛揣到頭人佇Orgaizated Editing Guideline頁面登記,感覺毋是傷好的處理方式。另外學生個人號口座用真實姓名抑是問題。佇中國的網路環境,線頂的口座號一个代號較好,莫用真實姓名號口座的名號是較好的做法。

Tâi-lô-pán

Tiong-kok hiah ū-lâng siā ji̍t-kì hainn ū tuā-liōng ha̍k-sing tī Tiong-lâm Tāi-ha̍k uē tuē-tôo, khuànn-khí-lâi sī lāu-su àn ha̍k-sing uē ha̍k-hāu hù-kūn. Tse-sī siā-kûn tsá-bān bueh bīn-tuì ê būn-tê, siā-kûn ài tóng-guân khì siu-lí, ia̍h-sī uē kah siunn-bái tsuè-lí-iû lóng thài-thài-tiāu ah. Mā ē-sái tshē Data Working Group hia̍p-tsōo, kā kóng-buē-thiann ê kháu-tsō hong tsi̍t-kuá sî-kan, hōo siā-kûn sîng-guân ū sî-kan tshing-lí kah siu-tsìng.

Tâi-uân tsia ê king-giām sī, kā tsi̍t-kuá khuànn-khí-lâi sī ha̍k-sing tsuè ha̍k-hāu tsí-tīng tsok-gia̍p ê kháu-tsō kau-thong, iōng piàn-king-tsi̍p liû-uē, thong-siông sī bô huê-ìng ê. Ū-sî-kan tō ti̍t-tsiap siu-kái hó-sè, koh-lâi gián-kiù in tuì tó-uī lâi ê. Bô siūnn bueh kái tō lóng thâi-tiāu mā bô iàu-kín, pit-iàu sī hōo Data Working Group tshú-lí, tshú-lí bô huê-ìng koh kè-sio̍k pian-tsi̍p ê kháu-tsō, tsì-tsió bô hōo būn-tê khok-tāi.

Ē-kì-tit Tâi-uân tsia siōng-giâm-tiōng ê tāi sī Bí-kong-thuân, iōng HOT Task Mager tī-teh uē Tsiong-huà, Hûn-lîm tsia-ê kiàn-tio̍k, tsuè-āu in-uī būn-tê kiàn-tio̍k siūnn-tsuē ah, bô-huat-tōo siu-kái hó-sè, hōo Data Working Group tsu-liāu lóng thâi-thâi-tiāu.

Kî-thá ê tāi-tsì iáu-koh-ū Tsiong-huà hia ha̍k-hāu ha̍k-sing ê pian-tsit-thuân, it-ti̍t m̄-tsai sī tuì tó-uī lâi ê ha̍k-hāu teh uē. Iáu-ū-lâng ka-siōng tsuân Tâi-uân ê sim-lí i-liâu tiûnn-sóo ê, m̄-sī ū-būn-tê, in-uī ing-kai sī kā tuē-tsí iōng Google tuē-tôo tsuân-sîng kíng-uī-tōo, tsu-liāu ê siū-khuân ū tām-po̍h-á būn-tê.

OSM Wiki ū tsoo-tsit pian-tsi̍p tsí-ín ê ia̍h-bīn, ū thuân-thé ài pian-tsi̍p tsìn-tsîng, tō ài tīng-kî tī Wiki ia̍h-bīn, ài lâu tshuā-thâu ê lâng liân-lo̍k tsu-liāu, bo̍k-tik, kah sî-kan. Tâi-uân Khuân-kíng Tsū-sìn Hia̍p-huē ê Lim-tsuí Tuē-tôo Kè-uē tō-ū lâu tsu-liāu tīng-kî. Tsoo-tsit pian-tsi̍p tsí-ín ing-kai sī OpenStreetMap sing-thài-hē lāi-tué, ē-tàng tsham-khó kah tsun-siú ê tsí-ín, mā ē-tàng tsham-khó pa̍t-lâng sī án-tsuánn tshú-lí ê.

Siōng-hó sī tshē-tio̍h thâu, lāu-su ài tsai-iánn buē-tsio tiōng-iàu ê bāng-tsām sú-iōng, ha̍k-sing kòng-hiàn ài tíng-tsin, buē-sái tshìng-tshái tshú-lí, thong-siông ài hōo ha̍k-sing uē khah kán-tan ê mngh-kái, tshin-tshiūnn kóng ha̍k-hāu, khiā-ke hù-kūn ê tiàm-ke, mài-hōo ha̍k-sing uē siūnn ho̍k-tsa̍p, siūnn tuā ê huān-uî.

Iū-koh ū Tiong-kok ê khuân-kíng bô-ún-tsún it-puann-lâng lâi uē tuē-tôo, kò-jîn uē tuē-tôo sī uî-huán in-ê huat-lu̍t. ài tshē kàu thâu-lâng tī Organized Editing ia̍h-bīn tīng-kî, kám-kak m̄-sī siūnn-hó ê tshú-lí hong-sik. Līng-guā ha̍k-sing kò-jîn hō kháu-tsō īng tsin-si̍t sìnn-miâ ia̍h-sī būn-tê. tī Tiong-kok ê bāng-lōo khuân-kíng, suànn-tíng ê kháu-tsō hō tsi̍t-ê tāi-hō khah-hó, mài-iōng tsin-si̍t sìnn-miâ hō kháu-tsō ê miâ-hō sī khah-hó ê tsuè-huat.

Pe̍h-ōe-jī pán-pún

Tiong-kok hiah ū-lâng siā ji̍t-kì haiⁿ ū tōa-liōng ha̍k-seng tī Tiong-lâm Tāi-ha̍k ōe tōe-tô͘, khòaⁿ-khí-lâi sī lāu-su àn ha̍k-seng ōe ha̍k-hāu hù-kūn. Che-sī siā-kûn chá-bān boeh bīn-tùi ê būn-tê, siā-kûn ài tóng-goân khì siu-lí, ia̍h-sī ōe kah siuⁿ-bái chòe-lí-iû lóng thài-thài-tiāu ah. Mā ē-sái chhē Data Working Group hia̍p-chō͘, kā kóng-bōe-thiaⁿ ê kháu-chō hong chi̍t-kóa sî-kan, hō͘ siā-kûn sêng-goân ū sî-kan chheng-lí kah siu-chèng.

Tâi-oân chia ê keng-giām sī, kā chi̍t-kóa khòaⁿ-khí-lâi sī ha̍k-seng chòe ha̍k-hāu chí-tēng chok-gia̍p ê kháu-chō kau-thong, iōng piàn-keng-chi̍p liû-ōe, thong-siông sī bô hôe-èng ê. Ū-sî-kan tō ti̍t-chiap siu-kái hó-sè, koh-lâi gián-kiù in tùi tó-ūi lâi ê. Bô siūⁿ boeh kái tō lóng thâi-tiāu mā bô iàu-kín, pit-iàu sī hō͘ Data Working Group chhú-lí, chhú-lí bô hôe-èng koh kè-sio̍k pian-chi̍p ê kháu-chō, chì-chió bô hō͘ būn-tê khok-tāi.

Ē-kì-tit Tâi-oân chia siōng-giâm-tiōng ê tāi sī Bí-kong-thoân, iōng HOT Task Mager tī-teh ōe Chiong-hòa, Hûn-lîm chia-ê kiàn-tio̍k, chòe-āu in-ūi būn-tê kiàn-tio̍k siūⁿ-chōe ah, bô-hoat-tō͘ siu-kái hó-sè, hō͘ Data Working Group chu-liāu lóng thâi-thâi-tiāu.

Kî-thá ê tāi-chì iáu-koh-ū Chiong-hòa hia ha̍k-hāu ha̍k-seng ê pian-chit-thoân, it-ti̍t m̄-chai sī tùi tó-ūi lâi ê ha̍k-hāu teh ōe. Iáu-ū-lâng ka-siōng choân Tâi-oân ê sim-lí i-liâu tiûⁿ-só͘ ê, m̄-sī ū-būn-tê, in-ūi eng-kai sī kā tōe-chí iōng Google tōe-tô͘ choân-sêng kéng-ūi-tō͘, chu-liāu ê siū-khoân ū tām-po̍h-á būn-tê.

OSM Wiki ū cho͘-chit pian-chi̍p chí-ín ê ia̍h-bīn, ū thoân-thé ài pian-chi̍p chìn-chêng, tō ài tēng-kî tī Wiki ia̍h-bīn, ài lâu chhōa-thâu ê lâng liân-lo̍k chu-liāu, bo̍k-tek, kah sî-kan. Tâi-oân Khoân-kéng Chū-sìn Hia̍p-hōe ê Lim-chúi Tōe-tô͘ Kè-ōe tō-ū lâu chu-liāu tēng-kî. Cho͘-chit pian-chi̍p chí-ín eng-kai sī OpenStreetMap seng-thài-hē lāi-tóe, ē-tàng chham-khó kah chun-siú ê chí-ín, mā ē-tàng chham-khó pa̍t-lâng sī án-chóaⁿ chhú-lí ê.

Siōng-hó sī chhē-tio̍h thâu, lāu-su ài chai-iáⁿ bōe-chio tiōng-iàu ê bāng-chām sú-iōng, ha̍k-seng kòng-hiàn ài téng-chin, bōe-sái chhèng-chhái chhú-lí, thong-siông ài hō͘ ha̍k-seng ōe khah kán-tan ê mngh-kái, chhin-chhiūⁿ kóng ha̍k-hāu, khiā-ke hù-kūn ê tiàm-ke, mài-hō͘ ha̍k-seng ōe siūⁿ ho̍k-cha̍p, siūⁿ tōa ê hoān-ûi.

Iū-koh ū Tiong-kok ê khoân-kéng bô-ún-chún it-poaⁿ-lâng lâi ōe tōe-tô͘, kò-jîn ōe tōe-tô͘ sī ûi-hoán in-ê hoat-lu̍t. ài chhē kàu thâu-lâng tī Organized Editing ia̍h-bīn tēng-kî, kám-kak m̄-sī siūⁿ-hó ê chhú-lí hong-sek. Lēng-gōa ha̍k-seng kò-jîn hō kháu-chō ēng chin-si̍t sìⁿ-miâ ia̍h-sī būn-tê. tī Tiong-kok ê bāng-lō͘ khoân-kéng, sòaⁿ-téng ê kháu-chō hō chi̍t-ê tāi-hō khah-hó, mài-iōng chin-si̍t sìⁿ-miâ hō kháu-chō ê miâ-hō sī khah-hó ê chòe-hoat.

Location: 后湖小区, 岳麓街道, 岳麓区, 长沙市, 湖南省, 中国

漢字的版本

最近毋知是按怎,近期的 zh-CN 日記出現誠濟篇指控 OpenStreetMap 無遵守中國的法律,竟然共台灣標示是獨立的國家。

臺灣人看著這款指控真無爽快,不而過猶是有精神來回應,是講 OpenStreetMap 的政策、運作方式佮精神,特別是爭議領土欲按怎處理的方式。

Pe̍h-ōe-jī ê pán-pún

Chòe-kūn m̄-chai sī án-chóaⁿ, kūn-kî ê zh-CN ê ji̍t-kì chhut-hiān chiâⁿ-chōe phiⁿ chí-khòng OpenStreetMap bô chun-siú Tiong-kok ê hoat-lu̍t, kèng-jiân kā Tâi-oân piau-sī sī to̍k-li̍p ê kok-ka.

Tâi-oân-lâng khòaⁿ-tio̍h chit-khoán ê chí-khòng chin-bô sóng-khoài, put-lî-kò iáu-sī ū-cheng-sîn lâi hê-èng, sī-kóng OpenStreetMap ê chèng-chhek, ūn-chok hong-sek kah cheng-sîn, tek-pia̍t sī cheng-gī léng-thó͘ boeh án-chóaⁿ chhú-lí ê hong-sek.

Tâi-lô ê pán-pún

Tsuè-kūn m̄-tsai sī án-tsuánn, kûn-ki ê zh-CN ê ji̍t-kì tshut-hiān tsiânn-tsuē phinn tsí-khòng OpenStreetMap bô tsun-siú Tiong-kok ê huat-lu̍t, kìng-jiân kā Tâi-uân piáu-sī sī to̍k-li̍p ê kok-ka.

Tâi-uân-lâng khuànn-tio̍h tsit-khuán ê tsí-khòng tsin-bô sóng-khuài, put-jî-kò iáu-sī ū tsing-sîn lâi hê-ìng, sī-kóng OpenStreetMap ê tsìng-tshik, ūn-tsok hong-sik kah tsing-sîn, ti̍k-pia̍t sī tsing-gī líng-thóo bueh án-tsuánn tshú-lí ê hong-sik.

Location: 天峻县, 海西蒙古族藏族自治州, 青海省, 中国

Pe̍h-ōe-jī Pán-pún

Tâi-oân chhun-lí ê chu-liāu in-ūi Wikidata siā-kûn chhú-lí hōe-ji̍p ê sî-chūn, the̍h Chú-kè-chhù 2017-nî ê chu-liāu lâi hōe-ji̍p, chō-sêng 2018-nî sin-tiâu-chèng ê chhun-lí, chhin-chhiūⁿ sī Tâi-lâm-chhī hêng-chèng-khu tōa-chéng-pèng, iáu-koh-ū in-ūi jîn-kháu chōe só͘-í hun-thiah ê lí, pēng bô sin-cheng kàu Wikidata téng-koân. Che tō chō-sêng tī OpenStreetMap chit-pêng ū chhun-lí koan-hē tùi-èng bōe-tio̍h Wikidata ê chōng-hóng.

kóng-tio̍h OpenStreetMap chit-pêng, tong-chho͘ Chìn-hoân sī ēng Lōe-chèng-pō͘ Kok-thó͘ Chhek-hōe Tiong-sim sek-hòng ê shape tóng-àn, lâi chhú-lí tùi-èng Hō͘-e̍k-chèng Hē-thóng Tāi-bé, iáu-koh-ū āu-sio̍k tùi-èng Wikidata sî, chhái-iōng pí-kàu sin jî-chhiáⁿ keng-sin khah kín ê chu-liāu, in-chhú tī OpenStreetMap chia kan-ta chha 一个 2021-nî 2-ge̍h chhoe-it sêng-li̍p ê lí, sī tī-teh Hûn-lîm-koān Táu-la̍k-chhī ê Chèng-sim-lí, só͘-í būn-tê bô-tōa, sin-cheng-ka koan-hē tō ē-sái lah.

Hôe kàu Wikidata chit-pêng, 2019-nî khai-sí ū-chi̍t-kóa Wikidata ê chham-ú-chiá khai-sí hōe-ji̍p chhun-lí, siông-sòe khòaⁿ chhun-lí hāng-bo̍k ka ê chham-khó-chu-liāu, sī ēng Chú-kè-chhù ê chhun-lí tùi-èng Hō͘-e̍k-chèng hē-thóng tāi-bé ê tóng-àn. Chú-kè-chhù ê tóng-àn kan-ta keng-sin kàu 2017-nî 1-ge̍h 31-hō, í-āu tō bô keng-sin lah, ti̍t-chiap iōng Lōe-chèng-pō͘ ê Hō͘-e̍k-chèng hē-thóng tāi-bé. Chin-chōe-lâng chōe chhun-lí hōe-ji̍p ê sî-chūn iōng-tio̍h kū ê chu-liāu, chō-sêng āu-lâi sin-cheng-ka ê chhun-lí pēng bô hōe-ji̍p kàu Wikidata téng-koân, kè-kiong ū 75-ê sin-cheng-ka ê chhun-lí, pēng-bô siu-lio̍k kàu Wikidata.

Wikidata chit-pêng chòe hōe-ji̍p ê lâng, 2020-nî lōng chhun-lí, mā bô-chù-ì tio̍h hit-sî-chūn ū chi̍t-kóa chhun-lí í-keng chéng-pèng siau-sit leh, m̄-koh in-ūi chhái-iōng chú-kè-chhù kū-ê chu-liāu só͘-í bô-hoat-tō͘ hoat-kak kàu būn-tê. Lán mā ē-tàng khòaⁿ-tio̍h chia-ê hōe-ji̍p chhun-lí hāng-bo̍k khiàm-chió Eng-bûn ê chōng-hóng.

In-chhú ū nn̄g-kiāⁿ tāi-chì boeh chòe, tē-it-kiāⁿ tāi-chì sī boeh kā Wikidata téng-koân khiàm-chió ê pó͘-chiok, lēng chi̍t-ê sī kā chéng-pèng ê chhun-lí, tī-teh Wikidata piáu-sī chéng-pèng ê ji̍t-chí, OpenStreetMap siā-kûn chiah ē-tàng kā chia-ê bô Wikidata liân-kiat ê chhun-lí koan-hē ka-siōng Wikidata liân-kiat.

Bī-lâi iáu-koh-ū Pîn-tong-chhī kah Tang-káng-tìn ê sin-cheng-ka ê lí, khòaⁿ-khí-lâi ē hun-phòe kàu sin-ê Hō͘-e̍k-chèng hē-thóng tāi-bé, OpenStreetMap sī boeh hoán-èng chek-sî chōng-hóng, OpenStreetMap sī ē-tàng ū-sian pian-chi̍p ū-tēng sin-cheng-ka ê lí. Bo̍k-chêng sian iōng hackmd choān-siá Tâi-oân Chhun-lí Chéng-lí (2021), hia̍p-tông OpenStreetMap kah Wikidata Tâi-oân hiān-chú-sî boeh-chòe ê tāi-chì.

Tâi-lô pán-pún

Tâi-uân tshun-lí ê tsu-liāu in-uī Wikidata siā-kûn tshú-lí huē-ji̍p ê sî-tsūn, the̍h Tsú-kè-tshù 2017-nî ê tsu-liāu lâi huē-ji̍p, tsō-sîng 2018-nî sin-tiâu-tsìng ê tshun-lí, tshin-tshiūnn sī Tâi-lâm-tshī hîng-tsìng-khu tuā-tsíng-pìng, iáu-koh-ū in-uī jîn-kháu tsuē sóo-í hun-thiah ê lí, pīng bô sin-tsing kàu Wikidata tíng-kuân. Tse tō tsō-sîng tī OpenStreetMap tsit-pîng ū tshun-lí kuan-hē tuì-ìng buē-tio̍h Wikidata ê tsōng-hóng.

kóng-tio̍h OpenStreetMap tsit-pîng, tong-tshoo Tsìn-huân sī īng Luē-tsìng-pōo Kok-thóo Tshik-huē Tiong-sim sik-hòng ê shape tóng-àn, lâi tshú-lí tuì-ìng Hōo-i̍k-tsìng Hē-thóng Tāi-bé, iáu-koh-ū āu-sio̍k tuì-ìng Wikidata sî, tshái-iōng pí-kàu sin jî-tshiánn king-sin khah kín ê tsu-liāu, in-tshú tī OpenStreetMap tsia kan-ta tsha 一个 2021-nî 2-ge̍h tshue-it sîng-li̍p ê lí, sī tī-teh Hûn-lîm-kuān Táu-la̍k-tshī ê Tsìng-sim-lí, sóo-í būn-tê bô-tuā, sin-tsing-ka kuan-hē tō ē-sái lah.

Huê kàu Wikidata tsit-pîng, 2019-nî khai-sí ū-tsi̍t-kuá Wikidata ê tsham-ú-tsiá khai-sí huē-ji̍p tshun-lí, siông-suè khuànn tshun-lí hāng-bo̍k ka ê tsham-khó-tsu-liāu, sī īng Tsú-kè-tshù ê tshun-lí tuì-ìng Hōo-i̍k-tsìng hē-thóng tāi-bé ê tóng-àn. Tsú-kè-tshù ê tóng-àn kan-ta king-sin kàu 2017-nî 1-ge̍h 31-hō, í-āu tō bô king-sin lah, ti̍t-tsiap iōng Luē-tsìng-pōo ê Hōo-i̍k-tsìng hē-thóng tāi-bé. Tsin-tsuē-lâng tsuē tshun-lí huē-ji̍p ê sî-tsūn iōng-tio̍h kū ê tsu-liāu, tsō-sîng āu-lâi sin-tsing-ka ê tshun-lí pīng bô huē-ji̍p kàu Wikidata tíng-kuân, kè-kiong ū 75-ê sin-tsing-ka ê tshun-lí, pīng-bô siu-lio̍k kàu Wikidata.

Wikidata tsit-pîng tsuè huē-ji̍p ê lâng, 2020-nî lōng tshun-lí, mā bô-tsù-ì tio̍h hit-sî-tsūn ū tsi̍t-kuá tshun-lí í-king tsíng-pìng siau-sit leh, m̄-koh in-uī tshái-iōng tsú-kè-tshù kū-ê tsu-liāu sóo-í bô-huat-tōo huat-kak kàu būn-tê. Lán mā ē-tàng khuànn-tio̍h tsia-ê huē-ji̍p tshun-lí hāng-bo̍k khiàm-tsió Ing-bûn ê tsōng-hóng.

In-tshú ū nn̄g-kiānn tāi-tsì bueh tsuè, tē-it-kiānn tāi-tsì sī bueh kā Wikidata tíng-kuân khiàm-tsió ê póo-tsiok, līng tsi̍t-ê sī kā tsíng-pìng ê tshun-lí, tī-teh Wikidata piáu-sī tsíng-pìng ê ji̍t-tsí, OpenStreetMap siā-kûn tsiah ē-tàng kā tsia-ê bô Wikidata liân-kiat ê tshun-lí kuan-hē ka-siōng Wikidata liân-kiat.

Bī-lâi iáu-koh-ū Pîn-tong-tshī kah Tang-káng-tìn ê sin-tsing-ka ê lí, khuànn-khí-lâi ē hun-phuè kàu sin-ê Hōo-i̍k-tsìng hē-thóng tāi-bé, OpenStreetMap sī bueh huán-ìng tsik-sî tsōng-hóng, OpenStreetMap sī ē-tàng ū-sian pian-tsi̍p ū-tīng sin-tsing-ka ê lí. Bo̍k-tsîng sian iōng hackmd tsuān-siá Tâi-uân Tshun-lí Tsíng-lí (2021), hia̍p-tông OpenStreetMap kah Wikidata Tâi-uân hiān-tsú-sî bueh-tsuè ê tāi-tsì.

漢字版本

台灣村里的資料因為Wikidata社群處理上傳匯入的時陣,拿主計處2017年資料來匯入,造成2018年新調整的村里,親像是台南市里行政區大整併,猶閣有一寡因為人口濟所以分拆的里,並無新增到Wikidata頂懸。這就造成佇OpenStreetMap這爿有村里關係對應袂著Wikidata。

講到OpenStreetMap這爿,當初晉帆是用內政部國土測繪中心釋出的shape檔案,來處理對應戶役政系統代碼,猶閣後續對應Wikidata,採用比較新而且更新較緊的資料,因此佇OpenStreetMap只有差一個2021 02/01成立的里,是佇雲林縣斗六市正心里,所以問題無大,新增關係就會使啦。

回到Wikidata這爿,2019年開始有一寡Wikidata的參與者開始匯入村里,詳細看村里項目加的參考資料,是用主計處的村里對應戶役政系統代碼的檔案。主計處檔案干焦更新到2017-01/31,以後就無更新啦,直接用內政部的戶役政系統代碼。真濟人做村里匯入用著舊資料,造成後來新增的村里並無匯入到Wikidata頂懸,計共有75个新增的村里,並無收錄到Wikidata。

Wikidata這爿做匯入的人,2020年弄村里,紲有不少村里彼時陣早已經整併消失咧,毋過因為採用主計處檔案無法度察覺到問題。主計處檔案猶閣無英文名稱,我們嘛會當看著遮的匯入村里項目看著欠少英文標籤的狀況。

因此有兩件代誌欲做,第一件代誌是欲共Wikidata頂懸欠少的補足,另一个是共整併的村里,佇Wikidata標示整併的日期。佇咧第一件代誌紲了後,OpenStreetMap社群才會當共遮的沒有Wikidata連結的村里關係加Wikidata連結。

未來猶閣有屏東市佮東港鎮的新增的里,看起來會分配到新的戶役政系統代碼,OpenStreetMap是欲反映即時狀況,需要等到成立的那天才會使編輯更新,不而過Wikidata紲毋是,是會當預先編輯預定新增的里。目前先用hackmd撰寫台灣村里整理 (2021),協同OpenStreetMap佮Wikidata台灣社群現此時做的代誌。

Location: 久久巢, 法治村, 仁愛鄉, 南投縣, 臺灣省, 臺灣

PE̍H-ŌE-JĪ pán-pún:

Góa tī-teh MapComplete Telegram kûn-cho͘ ê liû-giân:

Kí-gōa nî-chêng, Tâi-oân ū-chi̍t-kóa tô͘-kheh khai-sí Lim-chúi tōe-tô͘, chia-ê tô͘-kheh put-chí-sī piáu-sī lim-chúi-tiám, mā siūⁿ-boeh kā Lim-chúi tōe-tô͘ bāng-chām ê têng-sek-bé, ōaⁿ pa̍t-ê chú-tê thui-chhut lēng-gōa ê chú-tê tōe-tô͘, lâi thui-sak Khai-hóng kòe-tō͘. M̄-koh chiâⁿ khó-sioh bô-hoat-tō͘ the̍h-tio̍h chu-goân lâi thui-sak bô-kâng ê chú-tê tōe-tô͘, khip-ín Tâi-oân-lâng lâi chham-ú Khai-hóng koe-tô͘.

Chin-hoaⁿ-hí MapComplete ē-tàng tit-tio̍h Khai-hóng Koe-tô͘ Ki-kim-hōe, Khai-hóng Tì-sek Pí-lī-sî, Trage Wegen, OSGeo Belgium, Jîn-tō Kiù-oān Khai-hóng Koe-tô͘ Sió-cho͘, Ûi-sit Tōe-tô͘ téng-téng ê chi-oān, ē-tàng hō͘ kong-iōng pán-pún ê chú-tê tōe-tô͘ 成為 chi̍t-chióng khó-lêng.

Chìn-chêng choān-siá Lim-chúi Tōe-tô͘ siong-koan ê bûn-chiuⁿ, ē-tàng khah chheng-chhó liáu-kái siā-kûn kah NGO chih-chiap ê būn-tê: 1, 2

Tâi-lô pán-pún:

Guá tī-teh MapComplete Telegram kûn-tsoo ê liû-giân:

Kí-guā nî-tsîng, Tâi-uân ū-tsi̍t-kuá tôo-kheh khai-sí Lim-tsuí tuē-tôo, tsia-ê tôo-kheh put-tsí-sī piáu-sī lim-tsuí-tiám, mā siūnn-bueh kā Lim-tsuí tuē-tôo bāng-tsām ê tîng-sik-bé, uānn pa̍t-ê tsú-tê thui-tshut līng-guā ê tsú-tê tuē-tôo, lâi thui-sak Khai-hóng kuè-tōo. M̄-koh tsiânn khó-sioh bô-huat-tōo the̍h-tio̍h tsu-guân lâi thui-sak bô-kâng ê tsú-tê tuē-tôo, khip-ín Tâi-uân-lâng lâi tsham-ú Khai-hóng kue-tôo.

Tsin-huann-hí MapComplete ē-tàng tit-tio̍h Khai-hóng Kue-tôo Ki-kim-huē, Khai-hóng Tì-sik Pí-lī-sî, Trage Wegen, OSGeo Belgium, Jîn-tō Kiù-uān Khai-hóng Kue-tôo Sió-tsoo, Uî-sit Tuē-tôo tíng-tíng ê tsi-uān, ē-tàng hōo kong-iōng pán-pún ê tsú-tê tuē-tôo 成為 tsi̍t-tsióng khó-lîng.

Tsìn-tsîng tsuān-siá Lim-tsuí Tuē-tôo siong-kuan ê bûn-tsiunn, ē-tàng khah tshing-tshó liáu-kái siā-kûn kah NGO tsih-tsiap ê būn-tê: 1, 2

漢字版本:

我佇咧 MapComplete 群組的留言:

幾偌年前,台灣有一寡圖客開始啉水地圖,遮的圖客希望不止是標示啉水點,嘛想共佮啉水地圖網站的程式碼,換別的主題推出另外的主題地圖,來推捒開放街圖。毋過誠可惜無法度提著資源來推捒無仝的主題地圖,吸引台灣人來參與開放街圖。

真歡喜 MapComplete 會當得著開放街圖基金會,開放智識比利時,Trage Wegen、OSGeo Belgium、人道救援開放街圖小組、遺失地圖等等的支援,會當予公用版本的主題地圖成為一種可能。

進前撰寫啉水地圖相關的文章,會當較清楚瞭解社群佮 NGO 接接的問題:12

Location: 豐丘, 豐丘村, 信義鄉, 南投縣, 臺灣省, 556, 臺灣
  • 城市行政区划:省-市-区-街道-社区-网格
  • Urban administrative division: province - city - district - subdistrict - community - grid

  • 农村行政区划:省-地区-县-乡-行政村-自然村
  • Rural administrative divisions: province - prefecture - county - township - administrative village - natural village

这是两路泾渭分明的行政区划路线。乡和街道中间还有一级镇。
These are the routes of two distinct administrative divisions. Town is in between the township and the subdistrict.

某个农村行政区划中城市化水平高的,可以转变为城市行政区划,比如可以发展为:省-市-区-街道-行政村-自然村。
A rural administrative division with a high level of urbanisation can be transformed into an same-level urban administrative division. which can develop, for example, into: province - city - district - subdistrict - administrative village - natural village.

自治区是与城乡发展无关的行政区划。
Autonomous regions are unrelated to urban and rural development.

自治州与自治县有可能改设地级市或市辖(民族)区。
There is a possibility that autonomous prefectures or counties may be converted to prefecture-level cities or municipal (ethnic) districts.

Posted by Baeurodo on 25 May 2021 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 29 September 2021.

中国城市沿革 History of Chinese “Cities”

宪法中规定,中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:
It is stated in the Constitution that the administrative division of the People’s Republic of China is as follows:

(一)全国分为省、自治区、直辖市;
(1) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government;

(二)省、自治区分为自治州、县、自治县、市;
(2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities;

(三)县、自治县分为乡、民族乡、镇。直辖市和较大的市分为区、县。自治州分为县、自治县、市。
(3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns. Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.

自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方。
All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.

城市和农村按居民居住地区设立的居民委员会或者村民委员会是基层群众性自治组织。
The residents committees and villagers committees established among urban and rural residents on the basis of their place of residence are mass organizations of self-management at the grass-roots level.

居民委员会、村民委员会的主任、副主任和委员由居民选举。居民委员会、村民委员会同基层政权的相互关系由法律规定。
The chairman, vice-chairmen and members of each residents or villagers committee are elected by the residents. The relationship between the residents and villagers committees and the grass-roots organs of state power is prescribed by law.

可见中国行政区划应为“省-县-乡”三级,行政村为基层自治组织。此外,常见的自然村为自然聚落。
It can be seen that China’s administrative divisions are at three levels: “province-county-township”, with the administrative village being the grassroots self-governing organisation. In addition, the natural villages are natural settlements.

但是,现在的普遍实际使用的却是“省-市-县-乡”四级结构,多了一级宪法里没有规定的“市”。
However, it is now common practice to use a four-tier structure of “province - city - county - township”, with an additional level of “city” not provided for in the constitution.

这也给OpenStreetMap的编辑者们带来了困扰:中国的“市”是一个广域行政区,但OpenStreetMap上的“城市”却就是一个点。
This has also confuse the editors of OpenStreetMap: a “city” in China is a wide administrative area, but a “city” on OpenStreetMap is a node.

古代 Ancient Times

如果从词源上考究,英语里city一词来源于拉丁语的cīvitātem,指的是聚落,和town是同义的,后来在14世纪早期分离开来,中古英语里赋予其“有城墙的城市,首都或大教堂的城市”的含义。
If we look at the etymology, the English word ‘city’ comes from the Latin ‘cīvitātem’, meaning membership in the community. ‘city’ is synonymous with ‘town’, and was later separated in the early 14th century and in the Middle English it means ‘a walled town, a capital or cathedral town’.

而中文里的“市”原意为“集市”,是进行交易的场所。而对应中古英语里city的意思的中文单词应该是“城”,即有城墙的聚落。
The Chinese word ‘市’ means market, a place for trading. So the Chinese word for the Middle English word ‘city’ should be ‘城’, i.e. walled settlement.

近代 Early Modern Times

近代以来西学东渐,中国开始学习西方的行政制度。1905年, 清政府派出专使分赴欧洲、日本各国,考查中央与地方的政治制度。在清朝晚期的1909年,清政府颁布了一套基于西方行政制度的行政区划制度《城镇乡地方自治章程》。
In the early modern period, there was an eastward spread of western culture. In 1905, the Qing government sent envoys to Europe and Japan to study the central and local political systems. In the late Qing Dynasty, in 1909, the Qing Government promulgated a system of administrative divisions based on the Western administrative system, the Statute of Local Self-Government for Towns and Villages.

其中规定:
It is stipulated that :

以府厅州县治城厢为“城”,城厢以外的市镇村庄屯集等,人口满五万以上的为“镇”,不满五万的为乡。
the capital of prefecture or county is city (城), and that outside the city, the markets (市, 集), towns and villages with a population of 50,000 or more are called “towns”, while those with a population of less than 50,000 are called “townships”.

此时,清朝的行政区划体系为:省-府(州、厅)-县三级,市此时仍为“集市”的意思。
At this time, the administrative system of the Qing dynasty consisted of three levels: province - prefecture(府、州、厅) - county, and the city still meant ‘marketplace’.

这一《章程》也是中国现今行政区划体系基石之一“城乡二元体系”的奠基者。
This Statute is also the foundation of the ‘urban-rural duality system’, one of the theories underlying China’s current administrative division system.

辛亥革命后,江苏省于1911年11月召开了临时省议会,会上通过了推行地方自治的《江苏暂行市乡制》,它用“市”这一名称统一取代了“城”“镇”。
After the 1911 Revolution, the Provisional Provincial Assembly of Jiangsu Province was held in November 1911, at which the Provisional Municipal and Rural System of Jiangsu was adopted to promote local self-government, it replaced “city(城)” and “town(镇)” with the name “city(市)”.

在这时,市的含义已经从“市场”变成“大型人类聚落”,但仍非是一个行政区划。
By this time, the meaning of a city (市) had changed from ‘market’ to ‘large human settlement’, but it was still not an administrative division.

中华民国早期时,中国行政区划体系仍为省-道-县三级。
In the early Republic of China, China’s administrative division system was still three-tier: province - prefecture(道) - county.

在1921年,广州市政厅颁布了《广州市暂行条例》,该《条例》规定:广州市为地方行政区域,直隶于省政府,不入县的行政范围。这是“市”作为行政区划的开始,此时“市”与“县”同级。
In 1921, the Guangzhou City Council issued the Provisional Regulations of Guangzhou, which stated that Guangzhou City was a local administrative region, directly subordinate to the provincial government and not part of the county administration. This was the beginning of the “city(市)” as an administrative division, at this point “city” is at the same level as “county”.

1928年时,国民政府制定《市组织法》,规定市分为“特别市”和“普通市”,其中“特别市”与“省”同级,“普通市”与“县”同级。
In 1928, the National Government enacted the Municipal Organization Law, which divided “city” into “special city” and “common city”, with “special city” being on the same level as “provinces” and “common city” being on the same level as “counties”.

现代 Modern Times

之后,这个制度大体上没有变化,直到中华人民共和国在成立后颁布宪法(见文章开头),撤销专区,增加乡,行政区划体系变为省-县-乡,只允许自治州作为省-县之间的行政区划。
After that, the system remained largely unchanged until the People’s Republic of China promulgated the Constitution (see the beginning of this article) after its foundation, which abolished the prefectures and added townships, changing the system of administrative divisions to province-county-township and allowing only autonomous prefectures to act as administrative divisions between provinces and counties.

但是中国的县太多了,导致这个制度刚推出就宣告失败。这时中华人民共和国将中华民国时的“行政督察区”“道”改名为“专区”,但仅作为省级政府的派出机构,而不是一个完整的行政区划。
But there are too many counties in China that the system failed as soon as it was introduced. At this time the People’s Republic of China renamed the “administrative inspectorates”(prefecture level) of the Republic of China as “prefectures”(专区, “special region”), but only as a detached agency of the provincial government, not a complete administrative division.

宪法同时也规定了“较大的市”可以作为第二级行政区划管辖“县”,但并未说明“较大的市”的标准。因此,实际上许多城市都管辖着县,这种城市被称为“省辖市”,但并无法律承认该名称。
The Constitution also provides that ‘large cities’ may govern ‘counties’ as a second level of administrative division, but does not specify the criteria for ‘large cities’. So, in practice many cities govern counties, such cities are known as ‘cities directly under the provincial government’, but there is no law recognized that name.

这之后,行政区划体系实际上变成了省/自治区/直辖市-自治州/省辖市/专区-县/市辖区/市-乡。
After this, the system of administrative divisions actually became: province (“autonomous region”, “municipalitiy directly under the central government”) - “autonomous prefecture”, “city directly under the provincial government”, “prefecture” - county (“district”, “city”) - “township”.

由于宪法规定的行政区划体系过于不符合实情,所以导致了行政区划的管理缺位,这也是中国行政区划混乱的开端。这时候,由于宪法规定了“市”可以管辖“县”,“市”们开始了扩大的历程。
The constitutional system of administrative divisions was too unconventional and so led to a lack of administration of administrative divisions, which was the beginning of chaos in China’s administrative divisions. At this time, as the constitution provided that “cities” could govern “counties”, the “cities” began their journey of expansion.

1978年,专区更名为地区。1983年,全国行政区划改革启动,“地区”开始大规模的转换为“市”,因此原本第二级行政区划的“省辖市”的称呼逐步被“地级市”所代替。
In 1978, the name of prefecture(专区) was changed to prefecture(地区). In 1983, when the national reform of administrative divisions was launched, the “prefecture(地区)” began to be converted into “cities” on a large scale, so that “city directly under the provincial government”, which had been the name of second level of administrative divisions, was gradually replaced by “prefecture-level cities”.

宪法中的“市”为了与其区分,被人们改称“县级市”。进入21世纪后,“市”已经成为“地级市”的代称。
The word ‘city’ in the constitution was changed to ‘county-level city’ in order to distinguish it from the ‘prefecture-level city’. In the 21st century, “city” has become a synonym for “prefecture-level city”.

结论 Conclusion

从“市场”开始,到“较大的人类聚落”,再到“第三级行政区划”,最后变成“第二级行政区划”,“市”的含义一直在不断的扩大,但这些含义依然共存在我们的生活里。它们的共存也是中国的OpenStreetMap贡献者们感到困惑的原因。
From ‘market’, to ‘larger human settlement’, to ‘third-level administrative division’ and finally to ‘second-level administrative division’, the meaning of ‘city(市)’ has continued to expand. The meaning of “city” has been constantly expanding, but these meanings still coexist in our lives. Their co-existence is also a source of confusion for OpenStreetMap contributors in China.

  1. modprobe v4l2loopback
  2. ffmpeg -re -f x11grab -draw_mouse 1 -show_region 1 -video_size 1024x768 -r 5 -i :0.0+32,32 -f v4l2 -vcodec rawvideo -pix_fmt yuv420p /dev/video1
Location: Gellérthegy, XI. kerület, 布達佩斯, Közép-Magyarország, 匈牙利
Posted by Lepuse on 22 March 2021 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 26 March 2021.
  • 地鐵 railway=subway | route=subway | route_master=subway | building=train_station | station=subway | construction=subway | railway=subway_entrance | public_transport=stop_area | subway=yes | landuse=railway | building=railway
  • 水系 type=watershed | route=waterway | waterway=* | natural=water | natural=coastline
  • 建築 type=building building=* building:part=*
  • 公交 route=bus | route_master=bus | highway=* | public_transport=platform | public_transport=stop_area
  • 公路網 route=road | highway=*
  • 邊界 boundary=administrative | place=* -place=hamlet
  • 電力 power=* | route=power
Posted by EnumMapper on 2 March 2021 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 25 March 2021.

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 3 November 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 January 2022.

-

外國媒體彭博社報導一項毋是新消息的代誌,彼咧是佇中國內蒙古的朱日和基地內底有親像台灣總統府衙的建築。毋過幾若冬進前已經予軍武迷注意點,甚至媒體已經報導過。

Guā-kok muî-thé Bloomberg pò-tō tsi̍t-hāng m̄ sī sin-siau-sit ê tāi-tsì, he teh sī tī Tiong-kok Lāi-Mongolia ê Ti-ji̍t-hô-ki-tuē lāi-tué ū tshin-tshiūnn Tâi-uân-Tsóng-thóng-hú-gê ê kiàn-tio̍k. M̄-koh kuí-nā-tang tsìn-tsîng í-king hōo kun-bú-bê tsù-ì-tio̍h, sīm-tsì muî-thé í-king pò-tō kè. 中國彼爿不只是佇軍事基地內底建親像台灣總統府衙等等的重要軍政地點的建築,猶閣有佇內蒙古的沙漠複製映刻台灣中部重要的軍事機場的清泉崗機場。

Tiong-kok hit pîng put-tsí-sī tī kun-sū-ki-tuē lāi-tué kiàn tshin-tshiūnn Tâi-uân ê Tsóng-thóng-hú-gê tíng-tíng ê tiōng-iàu kun-tsìng tuē-tiám ê kiàn-tio̍k, iáu-koh ū tī lāi-Mongolia ê sua-bo̍k ho̍k-tsè ìn-khik Tâi-uân-tiong-pōo tiōng-iàu ê kun-ki-tiûnn ê Tshing-tsuân-kong-ki-tiûnn.

中國長期對台灣有領土野心,因為台灣島控制中國進出西太平洋的重要孔道。另外中國對台灣自我治理的政府嘛一直看無順眼,一直想方設法愛消滅台灣以國家的型式存在的事實,聲稱愛「統一」台灣變成中國一個省予中國管理。中國仿做台灣tiōng-iàu軍事基地,供解放軍訓練模擬進攻臺灣軍政地點,並毋是新消息。

Tiong-kok tn̂g-kî tuì Tâi-uân ū líng-thóo-iá-sim, in-uī Tâi-uân-tóo khòng-tsè Tiong-kok tsìn-tshut Se-Thài-pîng-iûnn ê Tiōng-iàu kháng-tō. Līng-guā Tiong-kiōng tuì Tâi-uân tsū-guá tī-lí ê tsìng-hú mā it-ti̍t khuànn bô sūn-gán, it-ti̍t siong-hong-siat-huat ài siau-bia̍t Tâi-uân í kok-ka ê hîng-sik tsûn-tsāi ê sū-si̍t, sing-tshing ài “thóng-it” Tâi-uân piàn-sîng Tiong-kok tsit4-ê síng hōo Tiong-kok kuán-lí. Tiong-kok hóng-tsō Tâi-uân tiōng-iàu kun-sū-ki-tuē, kiong kái-hòng-kun hùn-liān bôo-gí tsìn-kong Tâi-uân kun-tsìng tuē-tiám, pīng m̄ sī sin-siau-sit.

你會當佇開放街圖頂懸共台北的總統府衙和朱日和基地內底仿製的建築互相比較,看有啥物無仝佮相仝的所在。已經有圖客畫仿製的模擬訓練的建築啦。

Lí ē-tàng tī khai-hòng-kue-tôo tíng-kuân kā Tâi-pak ê Tsóng-thóng-hú-gê hām Tsu-ji̍t-hô-ki-tuē lāi-tué hóng-tsè ê kiàn-tio̍k hōo-siong pí-khah, khuànn ū siánn-mih bô kâng kah sio-kâng ê sóo-tsāi. Í-king ū tôo-kheh uē hóng-tsè ê bôo-gí hùn-liān ê kiàn-tio̍k–lah.

Location: 朱日和镇, 苏尼特右旗, 锡林郭勒盟, 内蒙古自治区, 中国

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 23 July 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 January 2022.

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 19 July 2020 in Chinese (中文).

2020年7月16日->18日

補充、修正以下鐵路信息

  1. 寶成線,同時添加一處新線

  2. 成花線

  3. 蘭渝線 廣元-渭沱段, 設置爲高速

  4. 西成客專線 廣元-成都段

  5. 成蘭線 建設中

  6. 成貴客專線(成綿樂)

  7. 成灌線及其支線,設置爲高速

  8. 陽安線

  9. 滬昆線 安順-株洲段

  10. 貴陽環線,建設中

  11. 貴陽樞紐

  12. 桂林樞紐

  13. 桂海線

  14. 四川石化基地專用線

  15. 廣岳線

  16. 寶麟線

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 16 July 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 January 2022.

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 15 July 2020 in Chinese (中文).

2020年7月14日

  1. 汕頭樞紐速度修正

  2. 粵海輪渡線移除railway標籤

    否則瓊州海峽大橋就建成了(bushi)

  3. 貴陽北樞紐的配線補充,速度修正

  4. 通滬線設爲高速,移除建設中標籤,添加ref標籤

  5. 大張高速線懷安-大同南段,補充速度,並設置爲高速

  6. 達萬線的各信息補充

  7. 武西高速線(漢十高鐵)襄陽-十堰段各信息補充

  8. 襄渝線各信息補充,線位修正

  9. 成昆線成峨段各信息補充

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 14 July 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 January 2022.

-

-

Posted by Jyunhou on 13 July 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 January 2022.

-

Posted by xhzyh1 on 10 April 2020 in Chinese (中文). Last updated on 9 May 2020.

Deleted