Here's a map I got out of our Open Source Routing Machine when I built a validator for sharp turns onto ramps. The idea behind this validator is that turns onto highway ramps should never be sharp (i.e. < 90'ish degree). There is a high chance a turn restriction is missing at those locations.
With these checks enabled I found roughly 30k intersections on the planet. I visualized the results in the map below; the redder the circle, the sharper the turn angle onto the ramp.
In the results I found an issue that frequently re-occurred. Consider the situation below: heading east on Goff Mountain Road (the yellow line), there is a ramp on the right that you can legally take. Around the bend, there is another ramp onto the same road for drivers going west on Goff Mountain Road.
If you are driving east on Goff Mountain Road and happen to miss the ramp, re-routing will kick in. When generating a new route past the ramp that you initially missed, OSRM sees in the road network that there is conveniently a second ramp onto the same road. It then basically gives you the instruction to make a nearly 180 degree turn on the the next ramp! A turn restriction onto that second ramp from Goff Mountain Road would fix this issue.
Given that the navigation is able to pass in your bearings data (what cardinal direction you’re already moving in) to OSRM, OSRM won’t try and tell you to make a fast u-turn and try the first ramp again like in the third frame of the gif. Making a turn onto the second ramp isn’t considered problematic though.
There are definitely false positives in the data and cases you will never hit in reality. But there are also missing turn restrictions onto ramps that will result in bizarre instructions given back to re-routing requests.
As usual check Mapillary and OpenStreetCam imagery before making changes. Especially look out for old satellite imagery.
Even though the sharp-turns-onto-ramps validator was just a quick evening hack it would be great to add more static road network property validators that detect situations like u-turns on high-speed roads or sudden changes in road class.