Chetan_Gowda's diary

Recent diary entries

Imagery update for Mapbox Satellite layer

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 18 October 2017 in English (English)

Mapbox recently rolled out new satellite imagery for many places around the globe. I’m happy to share that some of the Indian cities also got new imagery with this update and the community can use this for mapping in OpenStreetMap. I always prefer best imagery to add highways and buildings the most.

bengaluru Bengaluru, Karnataka

ludhiana Ludhiana, Punjab

kochi Kochi, Kerala

chennai Chennai, Tamil Nadu

kolkatta Kolkata, West Bengal

vellore Vellore, Tamil Nadu

You can also check the unmapped places on OpenStreetMap using this tool The tool compares the satellite imagery alongside OpenStreetMap. Here is the one example in Gottigere neighbourhood in Bengaluru, where buildings can be mapped.

gottigere_blr Gottigere neighbourhood, Bengaluru

screen shot 2017-10-13 at 3 46 58 pm Ludhiana, Punjab

Let me know if you have any questions and feedback. Here is the link to the web tutorial to get started with editing in OpenStreetMap. Also there is lot more tutorials are available at here.

Happy mapping!

HOT Mapathon

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 27 July 2017 in English (English)

Hello all, Namasthe! 🙏 We had an amazing HOT Mapathon on July 21st at Mapbox India office. We had the local OSM community along with folks who were mapping for the first time adding approximately 3000 buildings in Cambodia for Eliminate Malaria task.

The good thing about this event was that most of them knew about OpenStreetMap and very few people were new into mapping activity. At first, we introduced to OpenStreetMap, it’s data model, and good practices one should know while editing and a short demo of editing in iD editor.

Few Photos

Upendra introducing the HOT and it's objectives

Jinal Foflia helping the participant for mapping

Many of us discussed about ongoing mapping activities in Africa with more emphasis on FGM and Malaria issues and how non profit organisations are utilising the data that people produce to save many lives. Also, we've discussed about upcoming State of the Maps in Japan, US and Nepal. Some of the questions they asked are like, how data produced by many people been validated? who will take care of ground truth? and what is the community capacity right now? and so on. Hope we cleared all of them!

We hope to have many more events in the future with the community and help for humanitarian purposes.

Best, Chetan

ಪದ್ಮಭೂಷಣ ಡಾ|| ರಾಜ್ ಕುಮಾರ್ ಸ್ಮಾರಕ

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 18 June 2017 in English (English)

thumb-2048 1

‍‍ಕನ್ನಡ ನಾಡು ಕಂಡ ಮೇರು ನಟ, ನಟಸಾರ್ವಭೌಮ ಡಾ||ರಾಜ್ ಕುಮಾರ್ ಅವರ ಸ್ಮಾರಕವನ್ನು ಈಗ ಎಲ್ಲರೂ ‍‍ಮ್ಯಾಪಿಲರಿಯ ಮೂಲಕ ಕುಂತಲ್ಲೆ ವಿಕ್ಷಿಸಬಹುದು. ‍ಕನ್ನಡ ನಾಡು ನುಡಿ ಮತ್ತು ಚಿತ್ರರಂಗಕ್ಕೆ ಅವರ ಕೊಡುಗೆ ಅಪಾರ. ಚಿತ್ರರಂಗದಲ್ಲಿನ ಜೀವಮಾನದ ಸಾಧನೆಗಾಗಿ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ಚಿತ್ರರಂಗದ ಅತಿ ದೊಡ್ಡ ದಾದಾಸಾಹೇಬ್ ಫಾಲ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ‍ಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಿತು. ಇತ್ತೀಚೆಗೆ ಗೂಗಲ್ ಇಂಡಿಯಾ ಅವರನ್ನು ‍ಗೂಗಲ್ ಡೂಡಲ್‍ ‍ಮೂಲಕ ಗೌರವಿಸಿತು. ‍

rajkumars-88th-birthday ‍ ಮ್ಯಾಪಿಲರಿಯ ಸಹಾಯದಿಂದ ನಾವು ಓಪನ್ ಸ್ಟ್ರೀಟ್ ‍ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ಉತ್ತಮಗೊಳಿಸಲುಬಹುದು. ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗೆ: ಸ್ಮಾರಕದಲ್ಲಿನ ಎಲ್ಲ ರೀತಿಯ ವೈಶಿಷ್ಟ್ಯಗಳ‍ನ್ನು ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ಮಾಡಬಹುದು. ‍ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಬರೆಯುವ ಕಾರಣವಿಷ್ಟೇ, ಭಾಷಾಬಿಮಾನ ಹಾಗೂ ಕನ್ನಡತನ. ಭಾರತದಲ್ಲಿ ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಭಾಷೆಗಳು ಸಮಾನವಾಗಿದ್ದು, ಆ ಬಾಷೆಗೆ ಅದರದ್ದೆ ಆದ ವೈಶಿಷ್ಟ್ಯಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಇತಿಹಾಸವುಂಟು. ಮೇಲಾಗಿ ಈಗ ಓಪನ್ ಸ್ಟ್ರೀಟ್ ‍ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ನಲ್ಲಿ ಕನ್ನಡ ‍ಮೊದಲನೆ ಸ್ಠಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವುದು ಖುಷಿಯ ವಿಚಾರ. ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಎಲ್ಲರ ಶ್ರಮವುಂಟು. ‍

thumb-2048 2ಹೊಸಬೆಳಕು, ಭಕ್ತ ಪ್ರಹ್ಲಾದ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾಮನ ಬಿಲ್ಲು ಚಿತ್ರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ

thumb-2048 ‍ಅವರ ೨೦೮ ಸಿನಿಮಾಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನನಗೆ ಮೂರು ಚಿತ್ರಗಳು ಪ್ರಭಾವ ಬೀರಿದವು ಎಂದರೆ - ಮಯೂರ, ಬಂಗಾರದ ಮನುಷ್ಯ ಹಾಗೂ ಕಸ್ತೂರಿ ನಿವಾಸ.

ಬನ್ನಿ ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಕನ್ನಡಪರ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡೋಣ. ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಸ್ಪೂರ್ತಿ ಯಾರೇ ಆಗಿರಲಿ. ವಂದನೆಗಳು!

9M buildings in 3D, 🙇 MS

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 14 June 2017 in English (English)

Microsoft recently released 9.8 million building footprint data of 102 cities covering 44 US states to the OpenStreetMap community. This is a huge boost to improve the building data in many parts of the United States. Right now, we have ~ 19 million buildings already added by the community through imagery tracing and imports.

The most exciting part of this data is that all the footprints have height information. That means we can generate simple 3D buildings. I downloaded all the data and created a Mapbox style with 3D extrusion:

Philadelphia (live map) Boston (live map) Baltimore (live map)

In general, the data is of good quality and will improve the building coverage in the US by 150%. But the quality may vary from city to city. Local mappers should evaluate each city before deciding to import. If anyone wants to visualize the data in Mapbox Studio, you can use this tileset*.

Feel free to play with data, post your findings or screenshots of the data evaluation for the city you are interested in and let the community know how valuable this data is going to be for OpenStreetMap.

Code and other steps is available in GH repo:

* California not included in the tileset since OSM has fairly good coverage

Representing San Francisco City Hall in simple 3D building

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 22 May 2017 in English (English)

Last weekend, I tried modelling San Francisco City Hall in S3DB. The public building has 100 years of glorious history. The diameter of the central dome is around 34 m and total height of the building is 93 m. From Wikipedia

The co-ordinates of the building is 37.77910°N/122.41937°W. Edited this model first through OSM Sandbox and copied all the geometries and tags to main OSM database. I used JOSM current version and Kendzi3D plugin to visualise locally.

Before Simple 3D tags

before_in_kendzi Visualised in JOSM Kendzi3D plugin

After adding Simple 3D tags

Photo credits: At Flickr by Thomas Hawk




1. F4Map f4map Click here for demo

2. OSMBuildings osmbuildings Click here for demo

I'd love to see many places in OpenStreetMap in 3D. If you have any questions, ping me @chtnha on twitter or OSM message.

The state of San Francisco buildings

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 7 April 2017 in English (English)

In 2016, San Francisco city Government published LiDAR-derived building footprints that include both geometry and height information. One of the main goals of the San Francisco OpenStreetMap community was to import this height data to the existing buildings in OpenStreetMap. The project was initiated by SF community in November 2016, recently Brandon and Daniel lead a great Mapathon at Mapbox SF office.


Together with the community, Mapbox data team remotely joined and imported nearly 140,000 building heights to OpenStreetMap. Now we can get a real world like experience using popular 3D renderers like OSM Buildings and Mapbox GL JS or create realistic city using Blender or style buildings using Unity. Cheers to the all of them who made this project successful!

screen shot 2017-04-06 at 10 47 27 am

We will be validating these buildings through street level imageries. Both Mapillary and OpenStreetCam have great coverage in San Francisco City.

Tasking manager:

OSM/Mapillary comparison tool:

Right now we are using comparison tool to validate these buildings heights. Here are the detailed instructions to validate these buildings.

Please get in touch with the community in the Gitter channel for validation and for other updates.

Mapathon to import height data for San Francisco buildings

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 7 March 2017 in English (English)

Maptime SF/MaptimeOAK and Mapbox SF are hosting a Mapathon on March 14th, Tuesday at 6:30 pm PST to import building heights. Please RSVP to SF OpenStreetMap Community to be a part of this awesome project.

1200px-sanfrancisco_from_twinpeaks_dusk_mc Image from Wikipedia

San Francisco has building footprints, Points of Interest, and traffic signals for the entire city in OpenStreetMap. All these map features makes San Francisco as one of the well mapped cities on OpenStreetMap. In 2016, the San Francisco city Government published LiDAR-derived building footprints that include both geometry and height information. One of the goals of the SF OpenStreetMap community is to add height information to existing buildings in OpenStreetMap.

To jump in quickly into the project, do check the OpenStreetMap wiki to know more and talk to the community on Gitter to get involved. Also, make sure to create a dedicated OSM import account before jumping into the task and post it here.

Tasking manager link

Need to confirm these beauty care shops

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 21 December 2016 in English (English)

This changeset look suspicious where a user added lot of point's of interest like amenity=coffee, and amenity=beauty shops in Mexico city, Mexico. The user used editor to add data.

screen shot 2016-12-21 at 4 42 56 pm

One of my colleague @upendrakarukonda has left a comment on the changeset 3 months ago and removed only coffee shops. Again, I've commented for the second time on another changeset. We didn't observe any reply from the mapper since. So sharing here with the community to examine beauty care places and take necessary actions.

Thank you

Adding height to City of San Francisco buildings

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 25 November 2016 in English (English)

The SF Bay area community is trying to import height data for buildings in the city of San Francisco.


Why we are adding height tag?

Adding height to existing buildings will enhance the data especially when used with popular renderers like OSM Buildings and Mapbox GL JS.

What is the source of data?

We are using raw LIDAR derived building height data released by SF local government under a CC0 (Creative Commons) license (data download here).

How are we combining the height to existing buildings?

For each building in OSM, we compare the footprint from SF goverment buildings, if there is 70% overlap, we add the height. Buildings with existing height tag won't be touched.

The task is hosted in OSM-US. The importing has begun at

Note: Before jumping into the task, please read all the instructions carefully.

To know more about the project, or if you have ideas please post them here:

Weekly roundup of edits

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 7 August 2016 in English (English)

Here are the few OSM edits we have noticed in the last week. Observed that many experienced mappers need to think of a good changeset comments while they upload their changes to main database.

If you come across any unexplained mapping from an OSM user, let them know through your changeset comments and send them related resources, wikis, tagging system to new mappers, and encourage them to map in good way.

Thank you!!

Weekly roundup of edits

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 31 July 2016 in English (English)

Observations of mapping behaviour on OSM can give an insight into recognizing recurrent mapping problems our mappers are facing. Here are few of the issues observed between 18th July - 28 nd July on OSM:

  • House numbers were given in name=* tag: 1. Community responded with a comment and provided building wiki resource to the user.

  • 'casa' spanish for 'Home' were given to residential buildings:1. Community responded with a comment.

  • Buildings were given name=* tag with key values such as 'Cra', 'Calle', 'Betos', and house numbers: 1. Community responded with a comment.

  • Classification of highways were changed in Moscow: 1. The Russian community responded with a comment.

  • Lots of untagged nodes, market place was deleted: 1, 2. Community member reverted 1st changeset and commented on the 2nd one.

  • Retraced highway over previously existing one creating crossings: 1. Community responded with a comment.

  • Deleted highway: 1. Community responded with a comment.

  • Castles added: 1. Community member responded with a comment.

  • Lot of highway=road tags: 1, 2.

  • Failed import: 1

  • A ton of tourism = attraction, tourism = camp_site tags added:

If you come across any unexplained mapping from an OSM user, let them know through changeset comments. It starts a constructive discussion we can learn from and creates a positive environment for the OSM community to work together.

Look forward to seeing more of this next week.

What's going in Egypt?

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 29 July 2016 in English (English)

From last week I'm noticing lot data coming to OpenStreetMap using DigitalGlobe imagery. Some users are adding residential roads and overlapping the primary roads.

screen shot 2016-07-29 at 6 52 32 pm

Augmented changeset viewer:

Throwing here a small post to let know the community.

Group of buildings imported in Boscoreale, Italy

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 17 June 2016 in English (English)

I noticed buildings imports back in February 2016 which were having building=yes tag for all building nodes. Have captured the details here.

OSM user: geopeppe imported all these buildings and after my message, he cleaned unnecessary tags on nodes but now only exists are:

  • Group of buildings instead of individual buildings.
  • Missing source of the data.
  • The missing documentation of the import.

I'd like to inform the community of Italy about this import and take next actions towards clean up or right documentations.

Location: Massa, NA, Campania, 80041, Italy

OpenStreetMap Validation Guide

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 11 May 2016 in English (English)

Data quality is as important a function for any contributor to know as is adding large quantities of detailed data to OpenStreetMap. If we were talking one or two individuals editing, quality assurance would be straightforward, but what about with 2.4+ million registered users adding 2,000,000+ nodes a day?

Luckily, the tireless vigilence of active contributors is a source of some consolation but nearly not sufficient by itself. The important question then becomes, how can we detect and remedy mistakes and acts of vandalism as and when they happen? In trying to find answers we've put together a "Validating OpenStreetMap Guide" which aims share our learnings to working with OpenStretMap. The guide covers the basics of handling data validation in OpenStreetMap by defining problematic data, tools for detection, methods for investigation, and avenues for resolution for individual and community mapping efforts.

History panel showing different details about users and versions

By sharing this we'd love to get your feedback on if we're on the right track, and suggestions on how this guide can be improved to help bring an unparalleled level of data completeness that OSM users worldwide can benefit from.

The city of Chandigarh is taking a very good shape on OSM.

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 15 February 2016 in English (English)

The union territory of India, Chandigarh has been mapped well with neat buildings, highways. There are so many OSM contributors to this city. OSM India community is thankful to all the mappers who have contributed to mapping the city in a detailed manner. Oberaffe and chandusekharreddy have made mentionable number of edits . : )

screen shot 2016-02-15 at 3 27 10 pm

screen shot 2016-02-15 at 3 31 19 pm

How to fix common mapping issues?

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 7 December 2015 in English (English)

If you are a beginner to OpenStreetMap then you can look into Mapbox mapping guides to fix many common mapping errors that beginner's usually do.

Link -




ನೀವು ಓಪನ್ ಸ್ಟ್ರೀಟ್ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ಗೆ ಹೊಸಬರಿದ್ದರೆ, ಸಹಜವಾಗಿ ತಪ್ಪು ಮಾಡಬೇಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಕೆಳಕಂಡ ಕೊಂಡಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಮನ್ಯವಾದ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ತಪ್ಪುಗಳು ಹಾಗು ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ಹೇಗೆ ಸುದಾರಿಸಬಹುದು ಎಂದು ನೋಡಬಹುದು.

ಕೊಂಡಿ -

ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ಮಾಡಲು ಎಲ್ಲರಿಗೂ ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರವಿದೆ. ನಿಮಗೆ ಸ್ವಾಗತ. : )


‍‍ನಮ್ಮೂರು ‍‍ಹಾಗೂ ಸುತ್ತಮುತ್ತಲಿನ ‍ಉಚಿತ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ‍ ‍

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 14 November 2015 in English (English)

‍‍ನ‍ಮ್ಮೂರು ಹಾಸನ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯಿಂದ ಸುಮಾರು 12 ‍ಕಿಲೋ ಮೀಟರ್ ‍ದೂರದಲ್ಲಿ ಉಂಟು. ಹೆಸರು ಕೌಶಿಕ ಹಿರಿಹಳ್ಳಿ ಎಂದು. ಸುಮಾರು 70-80 ಮನೆಗಳಿರಬಹುದು. ‍ಹಳ್ಳಿಗೆ ಬೇಕಾದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಸೌಕರ್ಯಗಳು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಲಬ್ಯ. ‍‍‍

ಊರಿನ ಆಚೆ ಓಂದು ‍ಪ್ರೌಡ‍ಶಾಲೆ, ಆರೋಗ್ಯ ಕೇಂದ್ರ, ಪಶು ಆಸ್ಪತ್ರೆ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ಒಪನ್ ಸ್ತ್ರೀಟ್ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ನಿಂದ ನಮ್ಮ ಊರಿನ ಏಲ್ಲಾ ತರಹದ ‍ಅಂಶಗಳನ್ನು ಗಮನಿಸಬಹುದು. ಯಾವ ಯಾವ ‍ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳ‍ಲ್ಲಿ ಹೊಲಗಳು, ಕೆರೆ ಬಾವಿಗಳು, ಬಸ್ ‍‍‍ನಿಲ್ದಾಣ‍‍ಗಳು, ಮನೆಗಳು, ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಮರಗಳು ಇದ್ದಾವೆ ಎಂದು ಪರಿಪೂಣರ್ ವಾಗಿ ನೋಡಬಹುದು.

‍ಎಲ್ಲ ಮನೆಗಳನ್ನು 3D ಯಲ್ಲೂ ಸಹ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು.

screen shot 2015-11-04 at 5 03 58 pm screen shot 2015-11-04 at 5 04 13 pm screen shot 2015-11-14 at 9 35 52 pm screen shot 2015-11-14 at 9 36 27 pm

ಇದೇ ತರಹದ ಹಳ್ಳಿಗಳು ನಮ್ಮ ಭಾರತ ದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು 6 ಲಕ್ಶ್ಯಕ್ಕು ಮಿಗಿಲಾಗಿ ಇರುವುದು ಒಂದು ಅಚ್ಚರಿ. ‍ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ OSM ಸಮುದಾಯದ ಜೊತೆಗೂಡಿ ನಮ್ಮ ಅಕ್ಕ ಪಕ್ಕ ಹಳ್ಳಿಗಳು, ತಾಲೂಕುಗಳು, ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಗಳು, ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ಇಡಿ ಭಾರತವನ್ನು ಮ್ಯಾಪಿಂಗ್ ಮಾಡುವುದು ತುಂಬಾ ಮುಖ್ಯಾವಾಗಿದೆ. ಬಹು ಮುಖ್ಯಾವಾಗಿ ಮ್ಯಾಪ್ ಗಳು ಚುನಾವಣೆ, ಬರಪೀಡಿತ, ‍‍ಕಾಯಿಲೆಪೀಡಿತ ಜಾಗಗಳನ್ನು ಕಂಡು ಹಿಡಿವಲ್ಲಿ ಬಹಳ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಕವಾಗಿವೆ. ಅದಲ್ಲದೆ ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ಕೂಡ ಈ ಮ್ಯಾಪನ್ನು ಮುಂದೊಂದು ದಿನ ಉಪಯೋಗ ಮಾಡುವ ಸಂಗತಿಗಳು ಬರಬಹುದು ಎಂಬ ಅನಿಸಿಕೆ ನನ್ನದು.

ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಬನ್ನಿ OSM ಅನ್ನು ಉತ್ತಮಗೊಳಿಸಲು ಕೈ ಜೋಡಿಸಿ.

ಕೆಲವು ಲಿಂಕ್ ಗಳು -

Location: Hassan, Hasana taluk, Hassan district, Karnataka, 573201, India

ref OSM tag ‍for all Indian States

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 23 September 2015 in English (English)

ರೆಫ್ ಟ್ಯಾಗ್ ಅನ್ನು ಭಾರತದ ಎಲ್ಲ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಿಗು ಹಾಗೂ ಕೇಂದ್ರಾಡಳಿತ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಿಗು ಇಂಪ್ಲಿಮೆಂಟ್ ‍ಮಾಡಿದ್ದೇನೆ. ಸುಮಾರು 15 ದಿನಗಳ ಹಿಂದೆ ಹಾಕಿದ್ದೆ, ಈಗ ಅದನ್ನು ಜೂಮ್ ಲೆವೆಲ್ (zoom=4) ‍ರಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ‍ ‍ಚಿಕ್ಕ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಾದ ಕೇರಳ, ಗೋವ, ಪಂಜಾಬ್, ದೆಹಲಿ, ಕೇಂದ್ರಾಡಳಿತ ಪ್ರದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಪೂರ್ವ ಭಾಗದ ರಾಜ್ಯಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ನೋಡಲು ಸಾದ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ. ಎಕೆಂದರೆ ಟ್ಯಾಗ್ ಗೆ ಸರಿಸಮನಾದ ಜಾಗವಿಲ್ಲದುದರಿಂದ. ‍ ‍ ref tag

‍ಬನ್ನಿ ‍ಭಾರ‍ತದ ನಕ್ಷೆಯನ್ನು ‍ಉತ್ತಮಗೊಳಿಸೋಣ. ‍🌏 🙏‍

Simple 3D Buildings

Posted by Chetan_Gowda on 21 August 2015 in English (English)

Mysore Palace ( Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು ಅರಮನೆ ) also called as Amba Vilas Palace located in the city Mysuru, Karnataka, India.


Started this small project a week ago, looking into Palace photos and OSM wiki on Simple 3D buildings, Kendzi JOSM plugin developed this simple geometry building.

The whole building is marked as building = yes on top of it everything is building:part = yes. Texturing is another important thing in 3D development. Used Hexadecimal colour codes to building facade and roofs.

Kendzi3d is a useful plugin for JOSM for 3D mapping. It renders the building parts immediately as soon you change the height, min_height, building:colour... etc tags with out uploading the data to the OSM.

Screen shots from F4 Map

screen shot 2015-08-21 at 12 56 52 pm

screen shot 2015-08-21 at 1 04 56 pm

ಅರಮನೆಯ ಒಂದು ನೋಟ ನೋಡಲು ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ಲಿಕ್ ಮಾಡಿ. 👉 F4 Map link is here

Happy mapping 😀🌎