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Die digitale Neuvermessung der Welt

Posted by Enve on 29 April 2016 in German (Deutsch)

Dieser Bericht erschien zuerst in der Tageszeitung "Neues Deutschland"

Die digitale Neuvermessung der Welt

Nepal gilt als Paradebeispiel für den Einsatz des freien Kartenprojektes OpenStreetMap Kerstin Ewald und Noah Wintzer

Jeder, der über einen guten Computer verfügt, kann mitmachen beim Kartenzeichnen im Internet. So können wirtschaftsschwache Länder wie Nepal mit Hilfe von Freiwilligen veraltete Landkarten aktualisieren.

Jugendlicher beim Kartieren (Quelle: Kathmandu Living Labs) Jugendlicher beim Kartieren

Als Nama Budhathoki 2011 nach seinem Studium in den USA in sein Heimatland Nepal zurückkehrte, hatte er sich nicht weniger vorgenommen, als das Land der schneebedeckten Gipfel völlig neu zu kartieren. Seinen Plan wollte er mit Hilfe des Internetprojektes OpenStreetMap (OSM) umsetzen. OSM zeichnet sich besonders dadurch aus, dass es auf die Mitarbeit von Freiwilligen, auf sogenannte »Mapper-Communities« baut und kaum finanzielle Mittel voraussetzt. Nepal ist eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt, das meiste Kartenmaterial stammte noch aus den 80er Jahren. So schien OSM dem Stadtplaner Nama Budhathoki ein perfektes Instrument. Er stand allerdings vor dem Problem, dass 2011 die Mapperszene in Nepal nur aus einer Hand voll Leuten bestand.

Nama Budhathoki bei der Feldarbeit mit OpenStreetMap (Quelle: Kathmandu Living Labs) Nama Budhatoki im Einsatz mit OSM

Sie hatten gerade erst ein paar Wege und Straßen der Hauptstadt in die freie Datenbank von OSM eingetragen. Darum gründete Nama Budhathoki 2013 den Verein Kathmandu Living Labs (KLL). Zu diesem Zeitpunkt hatten Seismologen bereits vor einem starken Erdbeben in Nepal gewarnt. Budhathoki erinnert sich: »Wir wussten, ein Erdbeben wird kommen. Wir wussten, dass Karten für Rettungsarbeiten wichtig sind, also machten wir uns an die Arbeit.«

Er und die Mitstreiter vom Verein KLL eröffneten ein kleines Büro in der Hauptstadt und organisierten von dort aus zahlreiche Workshops, sogenannte »Mappingpartys«. Sie brachten Leuten bei, wie man aus Satellitenbildern gute Landkarten herstellt. Es kamen meist junge Leute, manche, weil sie Spaß an Technik haben, andere, weil ihnen die Erdbebengefahr bewusst war. Oder beides. Die KLL Mitarbeiter gaben Seminare an den Universitäten und brachten sogar Schulkindern das Kartieren mit OSM bei.

Die befürchtete Katastrophe kommt. Im April und Mai 2015 sterben 8800 Menschen bei mehreren Erdbeben, Budhathokis Wohnhaus bleibt zum Glück unversehrt, doch das KLL-Büro wird schwer beschädigt. Die nepalesische Polizei und das Militär beginnen die Suche nach Verletzten. Internationale Katastrophenrettungsteams erreichen das Land, das rote Kreuz belädt Versorgungstrucks, Kriseneinsatzkräfte des kanadischen Militärs bringen Bagger, Bulldozer und große Drucker zum Ausdrucken der OSM-Karten mit. Denn sie alle brauchen gutes Kartenmaterial, um ihre Arbeiten effektiv auszuführen.

Budhathoki erlebt diese Zeit im Arbeitsrausch. Die OpenStreetMapper vom Kathmandu Living Lab arbeiten vom Hof ihres zerstörten Büros aus weiter, um ihnen dieses benötigte aktuelle Kartenmaterial zu liefern. Wie überall herrscht auch bei KLL großes Gewusel. Die Mapper laden sich aktuelle Satellitenbilder des verwüsteten Landes auf ihre Computer und zeichnen Karten. Währenddessen kommt es immer wieder zu Nachbeben. 18 Stunden nach dem größten Beben stellt KLL die Plattform »Quakemap« ins Internet. Hier sammeln sie Hilferufe aus dem ganzen Land und koordinieren die Rettungseinsätze. Internationale Helfer gehen bei ihnen jetzt ein und aus. Einige Tage nach dem großen Beben zieht das KLL-Team in ein verlassenes Restaurant, dann in eine Schule um. Strom kommt von kleinen mobilen Solaranlagen.

Schon eine Stunde nach dem großen Erdbeben vom 25. April läuft die erste Meldung über die E-Mail-Liste der internationalen OSM-Gemeinschaft: »Die Nachrichten sind noch ein bisschen unklar, aber Kathmandu scheint schwer betroffen zu sein.« Umgehend schalteten sich die Freiwilligen in die Arbeit von KLL mit ein. Überall auf der Welt saßen nun Mapper an ihren Computern und zeichneten von aktuellen Satellitenbildern ab, was sie dort ausfindig machen konnten: passierbare und unpassierbare Straßen, eingestürzte Brücken, kaputte Häuser oder Flächen, auf denen Hubschrauber landen könnten. Sie suchten auch nach Schleichwegen, die die Rettungshelfer unverzüglich zu zerstörten Bergdörfern bringen könnten und zeichneten diese in die Karten ein. Kurz nach der Katastrophe fehlte in vielen Orten Trinkwasser, weil durch Erdrutsche Quellen zerstört oder unzugänglich geworden waren.

Fast 9000 ehrenamtliche Mapper trugen zum Nepal-Projekt kurz nach den Erdbeben bei. Ihre Hilfe koordinierten sie über das HOT Netzwerk, das Humanitäre OpenStreetMap Team. Dieses hatte sich nach den Erfahrungen des verheerenden Erdbebens in Haiti 2010 gegründet. Damals hatten erstmalig OSM-Mitglieder aus aller Welt geholfen, das haitianische Krisengebiet zu erfassen. Sie wurden damals noch stark durch organisatorische oder technische Probleme behindert. Deswegen entwickelte HOT in der Folgezeit Instrumente, die es nun Tausenden »Schreibtischmappern« ermöglichen, gleichzeitig an einem Projekt zu arbeiten. Diese verbesserten Werkzeuge kamen dann später in Nepal zur Anwendung. Sie dienen auch der Qualitätskontrolle, denn nicht alle freiwilligen Mapper können gleich richtig gut kartieren.

So gehen heute erfahrene Mapper alle Daten noch einmal durch, bevor sie einen bearbeiteten Abschnitt »auf grün stellen«. Sie können so Fehler beheben, wie der, an den sich der OSM-Experte Marek Kleciak erinnert. »In ganz Nepal gibt es keine einzige Autobahn. Doch irgendwo auf einer Bergspitze war da plötzlich eine auf der Karte. Jemand hatte einen Feldweg als Autobahn markiert.«

Die OpenStreetMap-Aktivisten beteiligen sich aber nicht nur vom heimischen Schreibtisch aus. Die Heidelberger Geografiestudentinnen Melanie Eckle und Carolin Klonner veranstalteten an ihrer Uni Mapperpartys für Nepal. Eckle kannte sich in dem Land aus, sie hatte zuvor ein Praktikum bei KLL absolviert. Gerade sind die beiden Studentinnen und ihre Gruppe Disastermappers wieder im OSM-Einsatz. Denn nach dem aktuellen Erdbeben in Ecuador brauchen die Hilfskräfte auch dort dringend Kartenmaterial. Darum luden Eckle und Klonner ihre Mitstudierenden letzte Woche zum »Mapathon« für das südamerikanische Land ein. »Jeder kann kommen!

Neue Leute können erste Erfahrungen im Mappen sammeln und von erfahrenen Mitgliedern lernen«, erklärt Melanie Eckle. Auch die Aktivisten vom Kathmandu Living Labs unterstützen tatkräftig die Arbeiten in Ecuador, wo die lokale OSM-Community noch nicht gut aufgestellt ist.

Doch auch in Nepal ist das große Ziel noch lange nicht erreicht, deshalb wendet sich Nama Budhathoki an die Mapperwelt: »Hier gibt’s immer noch viel zu tun, wir freuen uns über jeden, der uns beim Kartieren unterstützt!«

Location: F75, नौबिसे, Dhading, Bagmati, Entwicklungsregion Mitte, Nepal

Adding sport= tags to leisure=pitch.

Posted by Warin61 on 28 April 2016 in English (English)

I am presently targeting Australian 'leisure=pitch' that don't have a 'sport=' tag and trying to identify the sport and add the tag. Why? Well I added the osmwiki page for 'sport=netball' having found these to be missing or incorrectly tagged while some 1,300 were in the data base. I then went around adding them, or correcting incorrect entries where found. In doing this I noticed that in these areas sports grounds were poorly represented or tagged. Using the web to look for netball courts resulted in a doubling of the number of netball courts in the OSM data base! So how to find these areas where sport is not represented as good as it could be? I chose to use taginfo and search for leisure=pitch and sport!= (tags with leisure-pitch and no sport) while this works .. there are a lot of them ... meaning the work spreads over several days and I was repeatably looking at the same things! So i chose to add the tag 'fixme=sport=?' to the places where I could not identify what sport was played there. The search can now be 'leisure=pitch and sport!=* and fixme!=*' and that removes the places I have looked at.

I have now done NSW! I am targeting Melbourne, then country Vic. Then ... S.A./Qld.

This has increase the quantity of sports ... netball is now around 3,800! Increases for AFL, touch_football (I have yet to add a osmwiki page for this), cricket, basketball, softball (yep .. needs a osmwiki page too) and discus, hammer throws and long and triple jumps (again .. needs a osmwiki pages! ).

Start mapping Carei

Posted by kokeinyesdi on 28 April 2016 in English (English)

I start mapping Carei town

Location: Strada 1 Decembrie 1918, Carei, Satu Mare, 445100, Romania

Cluj Napoca Someseni

Posted by kokeinyesdi on 28 April 2016 in English (English)

I just finished to mapping buildings Someseni in Cluj Napoca

Location: Someșeni, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania

Cidades Brasileiras Não Mapeadas

Posted by LucFreitas on 28 April 2016 in Brazilian Portuguese (Português do Brasil)

Ao fazer algumas edições pelo interior do Brasil, pude perceber a grande quantidade de cidades e outros agrupamentos urbanos que ainda não possuem informações na base de dados do OpenStreetMap, mostrando apenas a relação de seus limites, importada anteriormente do IBGE. Alguns outros, possuem alguns elementos dentro do território municipal como rios, ferrovias ou rodovias federais, mas o núcleo urbano está completamente vazio. Até mesmo cidades de importância regional infelizmente ainda se encontram nessa situação, como era até recentemente o caso de Quixeramobim com seus 75.565 habitantes no interior do Ceará, por exemplo.

Pensando em uma forma de localizar estes casos, cheguei à conclusão de que poderia interseccionar os dados das vias residenciais com os limites municipais, chegando assim a resposta desejada.

Vias Residenciais

A escolha das vias residenciais (residential), se deu por ela ser a menor classificação hierárquica de uma via para veículos motores em um ajuntamento urbano, e também por oferecer uma maior abrangência, o que não aconteceria se fossem utilizadas vias minoritárias (unclassified) ou terciárias (tertiary), que já poderiam estar mapeadas.

Em algumas raras situações, em agrupamentos muito pequenos e lineares ao redor de uma via de maior classificação, não encontramos vias residenciais, mas este não é o caso. Todo município, por sua complexidade administrativa e organização territorial, possivelmente possui mais de uma via em seu território.

Fazendo a análise

O primeiro passo é a obtenção dos dados para a análise. Nesta tarefa, utilizei os extratos regulares do Geofabrik para o Brasil. O arquivo zipado oferece sete arquivos shapefile, cada um abrangendo um grupo de feições. Abri a camada Roads (rodovias) no QGIS e solicitei a divisão dos tipos de vias, criando um shapefile que continha apenas as feições das vias residenciais.

Realizei também uma consulta ao overpass Turbo que obtém todas as relações dos municípios em território nacional. Exportei para o QGIS e converti os polígonos em shapefile para agilizar o processo.

Sobreposição das ruas residenciais sobre o território dos municípios brasileiros

Basta agora solicitar uma Consulta Espacial no QGIS (localizada em Vetor > Consulta Espacial) e configurar para que: sempre que a camada de municípios contiver uma feição da camada de vias residenciais ele criar uma seleção.

Após a conclusão da análise, o QGIS vai selecionar todos os polígonos de municípios que contem vias residenciais em seu território. Excluí estas feições selecionadas para deixar apenas os municípios que não continham vias residenciais e salvei o shapefile.

O último passo é abrir a Tabela de Atributos da camada dos municípios e copiar os dados para uma planilha, para ter uma relação completa dos municípios que possuem mapeamento deficitário na base do OpenStreetMap.

Resultados

Após filtrar as planilhas, mantendo apenas os dados relevantes, pude adicionar estes dados na Wiki, para que a comunidade possa usar esta relação de municípios.

Dentre os 5.570 municípios brasileiros, um total de 420 foram encontrados sem ruas residenciais em seu território, o que denuncia falhas no mapa a serem corrigidas. Algumas vezes todas as vias foram classificadas como minoritárias (unclassified) e na grande maioria dos casos, o município realmente não possui qualquer tipo de dados. Mesmo que o Mapbox cubra algumas das áreas onde o Bing não está disponível, infelizmente alguns municípios ainda não possuem quaisquer tipos de imagens aéreas disponíveis, contando apenas com as camadas de vias do IBGE.

A tabela com os resultados pode ser vista aqui, na Wiki do projeto. Essa tabela separa os municípios por Unidade Federativa e os organiza de acordo com sua população (extraída dos dados do OpenStreetMap), e também contém um link da área que leva para o mapa principal do OSM.

A planilha original, em formato XLSX, pode ser vista aqui, no Dropbox.

Mapa de calor mostrando a localização dos municípios no Território Nacional

OpenStreetMap & the Ordinance Survey

Posted by alexkemp on 28 April 2016 in English (English)

A patch local to me (now called Stonebridge Park) proved to be a white triangle on the map (Stonebridge Road at the base, Beacon Hill Rise on the town side & Saint Matthias Road on the 3rd side). It was part of the St Anns-wide redevelopment at the end of the 1960s. 50 years later poor, lost souls were still being discovered in the shrubbery. Like English versions of WW2 Japanese soldiers they had wandered into the new estates & promptly got lost. Most were quickly discovered & gently led out to be rehabilitated in one of the local insane asylums, but some went feral & survived only by being fed by children from the estate (I know this is true as I'm sure I saw a film about it).

Something had to be done. The council renamed the whole triangle of land & gave a contract to Keepmoat to re-redevelop the whole area. That post-dates our Bing imagery. I've tried to contact Keepmoat, but they have not returned my calls nor emails. I've had better success with the GIS department at the local council.

SK53 (Jerry) gave me a contact to a councillor who is Executive Assistant for Housing and Regeneration, and he passed my email on to the council GIS Team. I got an email back from Laura, saying that my request “sounds very interesting”. Nottingham Council have their own OpenData initiative, but the Ordinance Survey stranglehold on British GIS Data causes Laura to believe that they cannot release anything to OSM.

I spoke to Laura today, and she will approach the OS to discuss releasing info to OSM. I spent most of yesterday collecting info + links which I put in an email to her. I thought that others may find that info useful, so here is the content:

I hope to speak to you on Thursday 28 April 2016. Here is some background info + links on OSM relevant to the topic of your recent email to me, but first the section of that email possibly most relevant to this discussion:-

On 26/04/16 16:48, (GIS Team) wrote:

We also publish individual developments as open data http://www.opendatanottingham.org.uk/dataset.aspx?id=28 with address information but no lat / long / easting / northing as requested by yourself. We are currently restricted on this. We are happy to investigate this further and look to include additional spatial information into the information we already publish but we will need to have discussions with Ordnance Survey about this information as it will be derived from their products and so need permission to publish.

Looking at the building outline / development boundary information data that you have requested as Open Data there are likely to be restrictions to publishing with unrestricted re-use as the data is derived from Ordnance Survey Mastermap products where Ordnance Survey would own the intellectual property rights for this. On many datasets we are starting to publish spatial information even if it is derived from Ordnance Survey data through a legal gateway called ‘presumption to publish’. However we think that the information requested is likely to fall outside of this due to the volumes of data that would be released within a small area, which would not be permitted by Ordnance Survey as this would basically be providing people with a copy of their product. We would welcome the opportunity to talk to you about this, and with further details may be able to assist further so below are my contact details.

You will find detailed licence info on the OSM website:

The relevant extract for using OSM data (which includes the maps) is as follows:-

You are free to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt our data, as long as you credit OpenStreetMap and its contributors. If you alter or build upon our data, you may distribute the result only under the same licence ... The cartography in our map tiles, and our documentation, are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (CC BY-SA).

It should not be necessary to say this, but there is zero (that is £0.00) cost in making use of that data. You will not, therefore, be surprised to hear that OSM maps are increasingly being used by a vast range of bodies worldwide.

In order to be able to maintain the CC BY-SA licence, it is essential that any data imported/entered into the OSM map comes from a non-copyright source. In America all government map data is copyright-free, but in the UK, of course, the OS have maintained a tight grip on the crown-jewels of the financial/copyright map-body. Thus, almost all maps in the UK could NOT be used to derive data for OSM entry. OSM polices this requirement most carefully & has a take-down procedure in place; and yes, it has been used, deleting all data entered by the infringers.

In spite of the paragraph above, Ordnance Survey data has been made available to OSM (see the Licence page, url above). In short, this has been brought about by a change on April 1, 2010 (and following) in the license that the OS apply. Here are relevant URLs then relevant extracts of that info:-

OSM started in the first place because of the difficulty that one cyclist in London had with the very high cost of using OS data (see the 'History' url as at top). OSM considers that it is (at least in part) responsible for causing the OS to seriously adopt the Open Government License. Here is the brief history:

  • Dec 2009 to March 2010: Government consultation: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Ordnance_Survey_Consultation
  • April 1st 2010: 1st release; under Open Database License 1.0 (but not Postcode data) (explicitly clarified with OS that this meant that OS data could be used in OSM)
  • 2010: Postcode data now released under open licence
  • February 2015: OS OpenData license replaced with Open Government Licence (OGL) v3 (no change to OSM usage, as v3 explicitly allows such use)
  • 24th March 2015: OS OpenMap, OpenRivers, OpenRoads, OpenNames, StreetView

From all of the above, it should be that there is zero problem in releasing this info for use in OSM.

Location: Thorneywood, Sneinton, Nottingham, East Midlands, England, United Kingdom

School Edit Tracker

Posted by Harry Wood on 28 April 2016 in English (English)

The "UK quarterly project" for the start of this year, was about schools. It was pretty popular and quite a few mappers got involved in editing and fixing up schools data in the UK. How many? Well...

I fired up my old "edit tracker" code to track School edits during the first quarter, and now it's frozen as a record. So we can see 362 people did a total of 15548 edits to UK schools data during the quarter.

And here's the rankings, showing that Robert Whittaker takes first prize with 1339 edits. The rankings also show a classic long tail curve. Not too uneven, but still with almost half of our 362 people only making a single school edit. But that's OK. Getting lots of people chipping in a little bit is a good thing.

That's why I created a new display called "New Starters". I hoped this might get people interested in the challenge of how to spread the word and get more people joining in.

Linked from there, and from the rankings, I made another new display for each user. So here's the school edits for the 'Harry Wood' user for example. We can see edits over time, so we can see my rather meagre contribution. We can also see that Robert Whitaker had a spurt of activity towards the end, while Yorvik Prestigitator seemed to take a break at the end, (and actually this allowed Robert to sneak ahead and take the top spot!)

screenshot

This involved a bit of drawing of bar charts in javascript. Last time I did something like this, I generated static images using google charts API, but this time I wanted the interactive mouse-over effect which we see with so many web charting libraries these days. I just had to find a free open source one... which presented quite a big sorting the wheat from the chaff challenge. I chose c3.js, which was quite easy to get working for this. Sometimes the width of my bars goes a bit wrong. Look at the way they overlap on the this chart for example. Maybe someone can spot what I've done wrong. The source code for all this display logic is on github.

Behind the scenes, there's my "diffreader" logic. As the name suggests, it reads the diffs (OpenStreetMap minutely diffs) Some ruby, a bash script, and sticky-tape, doing all the fuddling around with diff files, sequence files, parsing XML badly (really badly Naughty Harry), and eventually writing a nice SQLite DB file full of school edits meta-data. That's all unchanged from back in the days of wimbledon edit tracking, and the Big Baseball project, but one big thing I had to add was the ability to isolate UK edits. Easier said than done because the diff XML will sometimes contain nodes, which have latitude and longitude... sometimes not. I think if you edit a school by only changing its tags, then it doesn't. So I had to make some other calls in some circumstances, hold onto some data which was read in from earlier in the file, and generally apply more sticky-tape to my code. ...Quite a lot of hassle just to decide if an edit is in the UK.

It all works pretty well though. I was hoping to point people at it a bit more (tweet about it etc) to whip up some competitive excitement in the closing few days of Q1 ...but then I was busy on a beach in Brazil :-) Actually I don't have a way to stop it automatically, so I had to remember to shut down the cron job at midnight UK time on March 31st, but as it happened I was also busy online getting an april fools blog post put together at the time!

The "UK Quarterly Project" is a thing the mappa-mercia guys have been running for quite a while now on their blog. I think Brian Prangle has been the main man behind them. There's been quite a few. I rejiggled the 'UK quarterly project' wiki page to list them all. But I think after all the excitement of editing schools, we've not announced a topic for Q2 yet (unless I missed it). I'm keen to see if it will be something I should unleash this edit tracker tool on again.

Las buenas nuevas sobre los datos abiertos y la evangelización de OpenStreetMap

Posted by Javier Carranza Tresoldi on 26 April 2016 in Spanish (Español)

La palabra griega εὐαγγέλιον (evangelion) significaba originalmente “la recompensa dada al mensajero de buenas noticias (compuesto porεὔ (eu) que significa "bueno" y ἀγγέλλω (agelo) que equivale a "traigo un mensaje", misma raíz de ángel). En nuestros días, la expresión también se traduce por “la promoción de ideas a través de acciones, eventos y otros esquemas socio técnicos para difundir un mensaje acerca de un nuevo descubrimiento, plataforma o aplicación”.

Texto alternativo

La información geográfica recolectada voluntariamente (o de manera participativa) es una de esas buenas nuevas. Es un término recientemente acuñado para definir la utilización de wikis, redes sociales y otras plataformas para crear, recopilar y difundir información geográfica abiertamente a la vez que es proporcionada voluntariamente por ciudadanos de a pie. Muchas plataformas, como Open Street Map (OSM), Crisis Mappers, gv SIG o Mapbox, permiten a los usuarios crear abiertamente y discutir de forma colaborativa compartiendo sus propios contenidos y problemas en el ámbito de la geoinformación y creando objetos especiales que en principio no se muestran en mapas oficiales o cartografía censal clásica.

La comunidad más “creyente” alrededor de una plataforma geográfica es la de OSM, con más de 1 millón de usuarios y 18 millones de ediciones. Su evangelio va más allá de la simple defensa contra restricciones legales o técnicas que impiden que todos utilicen geo datos abiertos. Más aún, la comunidad posee un vocación miltante por defender una verdad de base , de terreno ; lo que facilita levantar y utilizar geo datos para el bien común de la sociedad. Generalmente, sus discípulos demuestran que compartir la fe con los no creyentes del geodato abierto puede ser intimidante y difícil, pero también muy gratificante.

Hay toda una nueva generación de organizaciones no gubernamentales e iniciativas de evangelización preparando programas innovadores, que están ayudando a promover a OSM y entrenar maperos conversos. Programas como MapGive, Stats UP de la comunidad GeoCensos, Youth Mappers y Escuela de Datos muestran cómo el contagio que conlleva la evangelización funciona para Open Street Map. La buena noticia está aquí para quedarse. Como cualquier otro tipo de "anunciación de la buena noticia", evangelizar en el uso de OSM necesita de un cuidadoso análisis, una planeación pulida y un lanzamiento impactante que introduzca eficazmente a los nuevos entusiastas usuarios. Un programa bien pensado y completo puede asegurar que OSM – o a cualquier otra plataforma – sea atractivo para todos los actores del ecosistema cartográfico , tanto el de fuente propietaria como el de afinidad abierta; a saber, la amplia diversidad de cartógrafos oficiales, las oficinas de estadísticas y cartográficas, las universidades, las ONG humanitarias, los gobiernos locales y las comunidades de abogadores de derechos de minorías sin mencionar al sector privado.

Veamos lo que cada uno de estos promotores del evangelio OSM hace, a quién destina sus esfuerzos y cómo lo hacen:

##Map Give @mapgive Es una iniciativa del Departamento de Estado de los Estados Unidos, con varios formatos y alcance global que busca involucrar a maperos iniciados en OSM en la ayuda humanitaria y otras iniciativas de mapeo por crowdsource , es decir a través de multitud de fuentes. Invitan a contribuir con OSM sólo utilizando una conexión a internet y conocimientos informáticos básicos, incluso aunque los candidatos no vivan en el área del proyecto propuesto. Introducen al uso de OSM a través de tres pasos: 1) apertura de una cuenta 2) guiando al usuario y haciéndolo practicar a través de todo el proceso del mapeo abierto 3) ofreciendo al iniciado un proyecto adecuado en el que trabajar. Han realizado roadtrips o “caravanas” en países subdesarrollados, estableciendo retos a los asistentes interesados en colaborar con proyectos de crowsourcing.

##Stats UP @geocensos Es una iniciativa de la Fundación GeoCensos con base en Colombia, destinado a oficinas nacionales de estadística en América Latina , a través de un programa dirigido a jóvenes emprendedores sociales. Ofrecen apoyo para la creación de nuevas start ups de geodatos en países en desarrollo. La estrategia propone abrir y utilizar geo datos disponibles en organismos públicos y oficinas nacionales de estadística. Sus contenidos incluyen a) la inducción a la revolución de los datos geográficos y el papel de las herramientas de análisis y gestión de datos científico b) el uso de protocolos de GeoData, con aprendizaje cruzado con demógrafos y estadísticos c) gestión de la apertura y técnicas sobre geodatos d) ética y principios de Defensa Social realizada por StartUps.

##Youth Mappers @ youthmappers Es una iniciativa fundada por la Texas Tech University y la George Washington University, dirigido a estudiantes dispuestos a mapear sus propios territorios circundantes. Funciona por capítulos de Universidades y asesora acerca de cómo configurar un capítulo. Las instituciones académicas de los grupos aprobados automáticamente a forman parte de la MappersU, un consorcio a nivel universitario. Al unirse a la red de jóvenes cartógrafos, los miembros comparten ideas y resultados de sus esfuerzos de mapeo, aprendiendo de otras comunidades amigas. No utilizan exclusivamente Open Street Map pero lo promueven. Proponen cinco pasos incrementalmente visibles: 1) Aprender a usar datos espaciales 2) Mapear el propio entorno local 3) Organizar eventos y actividades de grupo y 4) Intercambiar con otros capítulos en el mundo y por último, 5) Compartir las soluciones de geo datos logradas.

Location: Modelo, Barrios Unidos, Bogota, Bogotá, 1112211, Colombia

Nomeação de ruas em Santo Antônio do Amparo (MG)

Posted by AURELIO DANILO on 26 April 2016 in Brazilian Portuguese (Português do Brasil)

Acho que no mês Passado eu havia mapeado esta localidade e colocado nomes em quase todas as ruas. Agora fui verificar e a nomeação das ruas sumiram ? Houve algum erro ou nomeação inadequada em minha contribuição ? Também havia colocado alguns POIs , igrejas , e o hospital universitário ( que é ponto de referência aqui na região. ) e eles não constam mais.

Aguardo retorno da observação mencionada

Att

Aurélio Danilo

Trees (again)

Posted by SomeoneElse on 26 April 2016 in English (English)

A while back I described how I was showing tree types in woodland. The "unfinished business" there was "what about forest areas where the trees have been cleared?". Mapping of that is a bit hit and miss. "Forestry" has been suggested, but doesn't have many takers, and "forest" is actually often used for "the entire forestry area" (at least where I'm interested in rendering tiles for - I suspect it varies considerably worldwide). The wiki page and the standard style rendering discussion don't distinguish, but I thought it was worth trying to separate out "natural=wood" and "landuse=forest" where the latter is used for "the entire forestry area, including where there are currently no trees".

Here's the result:

Trees east of Bolsover

That corresponds to here in OSM's standard style. The dark green bit corresponds to "trees" (natural=wood; if there's a surveyed leaftype then obviously that is shown too). The lighter green bit means "forest, but no trees" (landuse=forest - the lighter green is only visible if there's no natural=wood also there). The forest and wood colours are defined here; here is the leaf_type handling in the stylesheet and here is where the natural and landuse tags are checked to see whether the current object should be treated as "trees with a known leaf type", "trees without a known leaf type" or "forest, but not necessarily trees".

Maps for children

Posted by bubix on 26 April 2016 in English (English)

The Barbara Petchenik Competition is a biennial map drawing competition for children. It was created by the International Cartographic Association (ICA) in 1993 as a memorial to Barbara Petchenik, a past Vice president of the ICA and a cartographer, who had a lifelong interest in maps for children. The aim of the contest is to promote the creative representation of the world in graphic form by children.

The competition is run first at the national level. The national winners then compete in the international round, which takes place the following year during the International Cartographic Conference. The maps are exhibited during the conference, and the international winners are selected.

All the beautiful designs are available in the address

Umap vince Piemonte Visual Contest 2015-2016

Posted by bubix on 26 April 2016 in Italian (Italiano)

Umap vince il prestigioso Piemonte Visual Contest 2015-2016 per la categoria PIEMONTEVIZ MAPPE DIGITALI con il progetto Piste Verdi di Roberto Brazzelli e Andrea Brazzelli.

Attraverso Umap così i vincitori hanno utilizzato le mappe di OSM, mentre hanno individuato le fermate dei bus, limitatamente alla zona limitrofa al percorso attraverso un file .cvs presente nei dati sul trasporto pubblico regionale (autobus), resi disponibili su dati.piemonte.it .

L’individuazione geografica con la relativa descrizione dei ristoranti, agriturismi e musei situati nei comuni interessati dal percorso è stata caricata dinamicamente, previa mappatura su OSM di quelli mancanti, mediante collegamento creato con OVERPASS-TURBO .

In tale modo qualsiasi aggiunta di ristoranti, agriturismi e musei nei comuni attraversati dal percorso venga fatta su OSM, in automatico verrà inserita anche sulla mappa!

Le foto inserite sulla mappe sono collegate dinamicamente e due tabelle di calcolo online create con ETHERCALC, le quali permetteranno agli utenti di caricare le loro foto che andranno in automatico a visualizzarsi sulla mappa.

Le aree individuate nella mappa come riserve naturali e area contigua della fascia fluviale del Po sono shapefile georeferenziati scaricati dal S.I.T. Aree protette e Rete Natura 2000 e convertiti con software QGIS in kml per essere inseriti nella mappa vincitrice del prestigioso premio.

Mapping Thorneywood Mount

Posted by alexkemp on 25 April 2016 in English (English)

or,

Watch Out for the Middle-Class

I've been mapping regularly since 21 March 2016, but this is my first Diary entry since then. I'll attempt to blog as often as I can from now on. Meanwhile, my most recent trace was uploaded a few minutes back. The longest vertical trace is Thorneywood Mount, starting & finishing at the bottom, at the junction of Donkey Hill†, Thorneywood Mount & Thorneywood Rise, and covering it's entire length up to it's junction with Porchester Road. The trace was made this afternoon as I gathered house number info, etc. from Thorneywood Mount & all streets between it & Porchester Road.

Most of the OSM street info for my neck of the woods (NG3:- St. Anns, Nottingham, England) seems complete, but not the houses nor the house number/names. Across the last month or so I've filled in most of that information for a section of St Anns bounded by Donkey Hill, Thorneywood Rise, Carlton Road, Saint Matthias Road, Southampton Street & Saint Ann's Well Road. After the April 2016 Pub Meetup I reviewed the whole thing & decided to continue – it seems that I like having to deal with the middle-class chewing at my neck – and began to extend the mapping to the north-east of Donkey Hill‡.

A good deal of the houses covered by myself so far have been terraces; classic working class housing stock, although since Maggie Thatcher increasingly colonised by the middle-class. Some of it has been much more hoity-toity than that (what in my days at Newcastle University the locals called “all fur coats & nae knickers”); a typical example was the upper part of Bluebell Hill Road. However, today's patch was entirely of the latter variety. I could tell that by the number of folks that called me out with “What do you think you are doing?”. A classic example occurred on Thorneywood Mount near the top at Porchester Road. These are institutions operated by an NHS Trust that I provided Network Support for 10 years ago. Prior to Maggie Thatcher nurses were almost entirely working class. Today they are all middle-class (witness their degrees) and it shows.

There is a GPS tracker available called OSMTracker; I use the Android version. Mostly, I take voice notes (20 secs seems best for me) + take photos whilst tracking. The latter are particularly useful for building-/house-names as belt'n'braces for if the voice-note fails. I did that for 145, 106 & 114 Thorneywood Mount. Prominent on the pictures is a notice saying that there is “24-Hour CCTV”. 5 minutes later I realised that I'd forgotten to record the traffic chokes & back-tracked towards them; whilst doing so I passed 5 nurses talking on the street outside those institutions. They were talking about me! They collared me, and I spent 20 minutes explaining my actions & displaying the photos to reassure them that I had their best interests at heart.

Here are examples of things to have upfront in your mind to avoid problems + demonstrate your probity whilst taking photos as you track for OSM:-

  • Public notices are public property; keep private matters out of your photos
  • Limit the scope of your photo
    (eg if you photograph a housename, keep the front window out of it)
  • Pictures of people are a no-no
  • The same goes for car licence plates
  • Where you are standing when taking the photo is one of the biggest issues
    (no issue if that is public property - thanks LivingWithDragons)
  • Next is why you are taking the photos (thanks LivingWithDragons)
  • Next what you are photographing
    (my endless photos of 20 mph signs tends to disarm criticism – thanks LivingWithDragons)

One thing that keeps becoming clear is that I need Cards to id myself & give to others, plus, perhaps some literature to give to save myself 5 or 10 minutes explaining each time what the hell OSM is.

†PS
The ‘official’ name for Donkey Hill is “Saint Bartholomews Road”, but no-one locally calls it that, and particularly as the church that it was named after was pulled down in the 1970s. The local legend is that the name comes from an entrepreneur who lived in Victorian times & stood with a donkey at the foot of the road at it's juncture with Saint Ann's Well Road. That fact makes more sense when you know that:-

  1. Donkey Hill is the steepest road in Nottingham.
  2. Saint Ann's Well Road used to be the busiest shopping road in Nottingham (killed as such by the council via clearances in the 1970s as to protect the new city-centre Victoria Centre shopping arcade).
  3. Roads near the top of Donkey Hill housed a large number of wealthy widows.

‡PPS
In my recent comment-to-changesets I put “Additions east of Donkey Hill...”. The area I was working in each time was actually north-east of Donkey Hill.

Coda:

28 April 2016: I just came across a July 2011 diary entry from Eriks Zelenka (based in Wokingham, in SE England). He got collared whilst tracking by a middle-class ‘paranoid guy’ who called the police. 6 police turned up in 3 cars & Eriks ended up arrested because he could not prove that his bike was his property; they took his fingerprints & DNA + searched his flat.

One of the comments contained a very useful link to a Citizen's Advice page setting out the scope of police powers of arrest, etc. in England (there are differing variations on this in Scotland, Northern Ireland & Wales).

Location: Thorneywood, Sneinton, Nottingham, East Midlands, England, United Kingdom

Улучшаем свой город на карте мира

Posted by RustemS on 25 April 2016 in Russian (Русский)

Поехали!!!

Location: Камыш Узяк, Сибай, городской округ Сибай, Башкортостан, Приволжский федеральный округ, Российская Федерация

Mapping while travelling

Posted by Sam Wilson on 25 April 2016 in English (English)

I'm on the move at the moment, currently in Spain visiting Menorca and Mallorca, and have been using OsmAnd on my phone a lot. It's a great program! Especially the bus stops and routes. I just want to say thank you to everyone who's mapped these things; it really is worth it! And using OSM data in this way has given me more enthusiasm for contributing more transport data in my home town.

The only drama I've had with OsmAnd is the GPX-recording, and really that was my fault. For some reason I thought I'd hit 'stop recording' before 'save'... and lost my whole day's travels. Still, at the least the photos I was taking were safely geocoded (and now on Flickr). From now on I'm going to stick to my trusty old Garmin Vista HCx and proper camera.

I've made some small edits to the map, and will try to do more. There's one bit that I'm not sure about, that I shall leave to mappers more au fait with the area than me; I've left a note for that.

I did add my grandparent's old house, Ca'n Ding Ding (nice name eh?)—

Cassa Ding Ding

Location: Cala de Sant Vicenç, Pollença, Serra de Tramuntana, Balearic Islands, Spain

HOT Board membership application

Posted by Katja Ulbert on 24 April 2016 in English (English)

My motivation to apply for a board membership of the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team is based on my firm belief that our work, be it disaster mapping, community development or technical innovation can truly make a difference.

Since I joined HOT, I have been an active member of the Fundraising, Communication and recently HOT Summit Working Groups, helped with the development of a new website design and participated in my first two fieldmapping missions. These activities gave me the chance to work closely with other committed community members and to gain insight in various aspects of HOTs work. For me the true strength of HOT lies in the community itself, which allows people with all kind of skillsets and interests to participate and get active. This is a crucial resource that has to be fostered and supported.

As a HOT board member my work will be focussed on the following aspects: strengthen the community life within HOT, initiating a positive dynamic, respectful communication and transfer of knowledge and skills; outreach, support and solidarity with local mapping communities; push our professionalization to gain more independency.

It is my wish to see HOT grow and prosper and my work as a HOT board member will be dedicated to this cause.

OpenStreetMap past(s), OpenStreetMap future(s)

Posted by Alan on 24 April 2016 in English (English)

[Crossposted from hi.stamen.com and mappingmashups.net. Slides at http://sta.mn/dnp]

I gave a talk at AAG earlier this month, as part of a session about OpenStreetMap data analysis. I followed three presentations by some of my favorite OSM researchers, Sterling Quinn (@SterlingGIS), Indy Hurt (@IndyMapper), and Jennings Anderson (@JenningsatCU), all of them using OSM history data to see what it tells us about OSM’s past and its present. You can read more about their presentations in Diana Stinton’s article for Directions Magazine: “The simple map that became a global movement.”

My own dissertation research also looks at OSM’s history data, but for this presentation I wanted to try speculating about OpenStreetMap’s future. Specifically, what if you take a chart that looks like this, and extrapolate what happens if the number of nodes keeps going up up up:

Like all of my co-presenters, we’re really not that interested in counting nodes, but we’re more interested in what those nodes tell us about the people who make up OpenStreetMap. You may have heard recently that OSM passed 2 million registered users, but the reality is that most of those people have never even edited OSM. A more meaningful statistic is the count of users who have been active editors each month. Right now the number is around 25,000 people. Smaller than 2 million, but still steadily increasing:

In my research I make a lot of comparisons with Wikipedia, which is a much bigger and older project than OSM, but similar in many ways. Wikipedia is also still growing in size, but if you look closely you’ll see that the rate of new articles has been slowing down for a long time, since 2007 approximately.

The same thing is true about Wikipedia’s users. Their monthly count of active editors has been dropping since 2007. A smaller number of people is doing more and more of the work.

If you talk to Wikipedia researchers, they’ve been freaking out about this statistic for a long time. Nobody knows exactly why it’s happening. It’s probably caused by a variety of factors, and one possibility (to simplify things greatly) is that the Wikipedia community has become increasingly unwelcoming and difficult to become a part of. Or at least that there are enough difficult people to deal with that it drives away new contributors. (Those who have been active in the OSM community might notice some parallels here.)

Another possible reason is Wikipedia’s Notability Guideline. Basically, Wikipedia has come to a consensus that there are only some topics that are notable enough to be in an encyclopedia. Any new articles that aren’t considered notable are candidates for speedy deletion. Of course, there are many Wikipedians who argue that Wikipedia shouldn’t be held to the standards of a traditional encyclopedia: there are no space constraints because it’s not printed on paper, so why not have an article about basically everything, notable or not?

These two factions became known as Inclusionists and Deletionists, and pretty much everyone agrees that the Deletionists won. However, this is one of the key places where OSM differs from Wikipedia. OpenStreetMap has no notability rule! An arbitrary amount of detail is theoretically possible. When you’re done mapping roads, you can start mapping sidewalks. When you’re done with sidewalks, you can map mailboxes, trees, and benches. Nobody knows where the level of detail will end.

But if OSM allows this much detail, somebody has to maintain it! This question of maintenance is the key focus of my dissertation research. Who maintains OSM? Are they the same people who mapped the roads to begin with, or do different people come along to do maintenance? Is there enough maintenance happening to keep OSM up-to-date?

In my research I call this “map gardening”, borrowing the concept of “wiki gardening” from the community of wikis (Wikipedia being only one of these). A wiki gardener is someone who doesn’t necessarily write new articles, but instead enjoys fixing typos and grammar in existing articles, fixing up formatting and broken links, basically doing all the thankless and unsexy tasks that are necessary to keep a wiki functioning. Presumably a similar “map gardening” must exist in OSM, so what does it look like? And what does it look like going into the future? Here I’d like to step back, way back, and borrow an analogy from cosmology, the study of the life and death of the universe. Following the Big Bang, the universe expanded rapidly. After a while, the expansion slowed down, but recent studies have found that it’s actually speeding back up again. Cosmologists think there is something called dark energy that is causing this acceleration, but nobody knows how much dark energy is out there. If it’s a lot, then the universe will keep expanding and eventually even molecules and atoms will be torn apart. This is called the Big Rip. If there’s not much dark energy out there, then eventually gravity will overcome it and the universe will collapse into the Big Crunch.

So what are the “cosmological” futures for OSM? The number of new features (points, lines, polygons) could keep increasing, or maybe that pace will slow down or stop entirely. Similarly, the amount of maintenance edits (those “map gardening” tasks) could keep growing, or they could slow down to a trickle. The balance between those two activities could lead to the OSM equivalent of a Big Rip, a Big Crunch, or something else entirely.

Here are (at least) four scenarios that might occur:

But before we look at those scenarios, here’s a chart (not with real data, yet) that illustrates the possibilities. Note that this chart is different from the cosmological chart that I just showed. Instead of time along the bottom axis, this is a cumulative chart where time moves somewhere up and to the right.

As people create new nodes in OSM, the dot moves to the right. Every time someone edits an existing node, the dot moves upward on the chart. Because it’s cumulative, the line will never curve downward, or bend backward to the left. Each year’s worth of edits moves the dot some amount right, up, or both. (Also note, for simplicity’s sake I’m ignoring all the lines and areas in OSM, and only looking at the raw points, which OSM calls “nodes”).

Now let’s look at the four scenarios.

#1. Ghost town

Our first scenario is the “Ghost town”, where new nodes slow down, and so do the modifications. Basically, this is what happens if everyone gets bored of OSM (or if community disfunction causes everyone to leave).

It wouldn’t necessarily look like this: (although this is the first result when you search for “ghost town” in OpenStreetMap).

In fact, the Ghost Town scenario might look like a fully complete street map. But it would be slowly getting out of date, and no one would be increasing the amount of detail. It would become a snapshot in time.

#2: Garden

The second scenario is what happens if people stop adding new features to OSM, but they continue to edit them and keep them up to date. Maybe this would happen if OSM institutes something like Wikipedia’s Notability Rule. Perhaps OSM decides that streets and addresses are good to have, but trees and mailboxes are too much detail.

But this scenario requires a large community of OSM editors who enjoy maintenance. There will always be new buildings built and old ones torn down, roads that are widened or redirected, river banks that change their course. All of these things need to be updated in OSM if it’s going to stay useful.

For example, here’s a nice garden in OSM, next to some well-mapped riverbanks that will be shifting and changing year after year.

Here’s another lovely garden. (Of course, I’m talking about all kinds of OSM features, not just literal gardens… but if you do find any nice examples of gardens in OSM, please send me a tweet!)

#3: Borgesian map

The third scenario is what happens if people keep adding more and more detail to OSM, but nobody can keep up maintaining it.

In this scenario, eventually everyone has mapped all the streets and sidewalks, and they start mapping every tree and shrub, maybe even every blade of grass (to borrow Harry Wood’s “most insane” example from his 2011 talk at State of the Map about OSM as a garden).

Eventually, OSM would approach the 1:1 scale map described by Lewis Carroll, and later in a short story by Jorge Luis Borges. In Borges’s story, cartographers succeeded in creating a 1:1 map, only to find it impossible to use. Eventually they abandon the map, parts of which can still be found scattered about in the desert.

In OSM, a 1:1 map without enough maintenance would be equally useless. It might not be fully abandoned, as people keep adding more and more data, but everything they did add would become out-of-date and impossible to verify. The OSM database would be cluttered with useless information.

But we’re probably not yet at the limit of detail that is both useful and (potentially) maintainable. OSM already has some proposals underway about mapping roads as areas instead of lines. Here’s an example of some municipal data (not from OSM) visualized by Lou Huang at Mapzen, showing curblines maintained by the city of Philadelphia. I won’t be surprised is OSM volunteers start adding data at this resolution.

But then where do we stop? As another example of municipal micromapping, here are the outlines of all the street markings painted by the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Surely some amateur mapper in Germany with too much time on his/her hands is thinking about how to tag features like these in OSM…

#4: Singularity:

But what if Borges’s 1:1 map doesn’t get abandoned to crumble apart in the desert? What if, somehow, OSM keeps adding features, but the community keeps maintaining those features too? What if OSM didn’t just have 25,000 monthly editors, but actually did have 2 million or 25 million editors checking OSM and fixing data every day?

I’m calling this scenario The Singularity, but you’ll have to excuse me for mixing my metaphors. I’m not talking about a cosmological singularity like a black hole, or the Big Bang. Instead I’m borrowing from Ray Kurzweil’s idea of rapidly accelerating computational power and information growth. Partly I like this concept because the singularity is the point past which we can’t predict or imagine what would happen, and I can’t really imagine what OSM would look like if it were a constantly-maintained 1:1 map. But Kurzweil’s singularity is also relevant because OSM probably couldn’t achieve a perfectly up-to-date 1:1 map without the help of algorithms and machine intelligence. But that’s a topic for another presentation.

Who knows what that would look like? The gardens of Versailles in OpenStreetMap are the most detailed gardens I could find, but this level of detail might only be the beginning.

Reality

So we’ve spent a lot of time speculating about what these different scenarios might look like, and I’ve shown charts that illustrate how we might see those scenarios manifest themselves in the data. But what does the real data look like?

Here’s the chart showing the OpenStreetMap planet file, from the earliest OSM nodes around 2005, up to January 1st 2016. The line shows the cumulative count of nodes created and nodes edited for each month, with dots every January.

There are a few surprising things about this chart that I didn’t expect to see. In the first few years, we see mostly new nodes added, and not a whole lot of modified nodes; that’s to be expected. You can see there were more new nodes in 2007 than there were in 2008, mostly due to the TIGER data import that happened in late 2007. Then in 2008 and especially 2009, we see a significant number of modifications. I’m not sure what was happening during this time to explain this burst of gardening. It doesn’t correlate exactly with changes in the OSM data structure (which might require fixing features that were incorrectly translated from one datatype to another), and it doesn’t match up with the availability of new higher-resolution satellite imagery (which might have triggered spurts of gardening where people would improve the geometry of poorly-traced roads). That early spike of gardening certainly merits more research.

The other striking aspect of this chart is the steady, smooth line from 2010 to the present day. It’s shocking to think that when you sum up all the editing activity all over the world in OSM, it always adds up to the exact same ratio of new features to modified features. From 2010 onward, every month in OSM, there were roughly three new features for every one modification of a feature. Did OSM stumble upon some perfect, magic balance that will be maintained forever? What is special about that ratio?

But if the study of geography teaches us anything, it’s that you can’t look at the whole world as a homogenous system. We need to zoom in on the local dynamics of the OSM community, not just look at the planet file as a whole. How has OSM evolved on smaller scales?

Here’s London, the place where OSM got started. It follows a similar path as the planet does overall. But if you look closely the spacing between years, it starting to slow down (even while the ratio between node creation and node modification is staying steady). Is London pulling back from a course towards the singularity? If it slows down too much, will it become a ghost town? Maybe the map of London is getting close to being “finished”?

However, if we look at Berlin, another extremely well-mapped city with a strong OSM community, we see something different. In the last two years, when London slowed down, Berlin sped up! Here they are still finding new things to map.

Tokyo is also still adding new features, although it might be slowing down a bit, like London. But one key difference between Tokyo and the first two is that the number of modified nodes is significantly lower compared to created nodes (the chart is further down toward the right). Tokyo is more on track to become a Borgesian map.

In a place like Port-au-Prince, Haiti, we can see the signature of an intense burst of humanitarian mapping after the 2010 earthquake. We also see sporadic bursts of subsequent activity: in some years there is almost no activity, but in other years there is a lively pace of new features with a bit of maintenance. This is an example of a place where a community is struggling to take root and avoid becoming a ghost town.

In San Francisco we can see the early influence of the TIGER import (the first year which is flat against the X axis: all new imported nodes, no maintenance). But in later years we see a strong and growing rate of activity: in relative terms, the TIGER data is just a blip, far in the past. More worrisome is the trend of the line, bending more towards the right instead of upwards. If San Francisco doesn’t increase the amount of gardening edits, all this rich data will become out of date and obsolete.

Finally, Moscow. Another well-mapped city with a strong community, similar to London or Berlin. But of all the cities we’ve looked at, the slope of the line is the steepest: Moscow has its own blend of node creators and node maintainers, with significantly higher rate of maintenance than anywhere else! Is this a cultural difference within the OSM community? Does it mean Moscow’s map is more up-to-date and better maintained? It will be fascinating to find out! Finally, these charts can’t really tell us anything about how much maintenance is necessary to keep OSM at some minimum level of quality. But we can start thinking about what that equation would look like. We know there are at least two reasons why we need maintenance: to fix human error in the node creation process, and to keep OSM up-to-date to reflect changes out in the real world. The human error rate is a function of the number of new nodes (and also errors during the process of maintenance, we can ignore those for now), while the rate of real-world change is a function of the number of features in OSM that reflect features in the real world. If OSM decides to include features for blade of grass, that’s a lot of maintenance edits that will be required whenever someone mows the lawn.

Here’s what a first stab at that equation looks like. All the values are unknowns at this point, but one thing is clear: “map gardening” shouldn’t be and can’t be just an afterthought. In the long run, without maintenance OSM won’t add up to much.

I would love to hear what you think about this research. Please get in touch!

UPDATE: Bill Morris was quick to give an opinion: “I’m definitely voting ‘Borgesian map’ as the likely outcome here.” …which made me think, I should do a twitter poll. So let me know what you think will happen with OpenStreetMap. Remember that it might be years or decades before we know for sure: [twitter link]

Location: West SoMa, San Francisco, San Francisco City and County, California, 1087, United States of America

Why local assumptions are wrong for an international project

Posted by BushmanK on 24 April 2016 in English (English)

This is a follow-up entry to certain comments I'm getting on my other entries, related to tagging scheme inconsistency. I just want to explain this in a separate entry to be able to link to it every time certain argument is used.

Every country, nation and culture has own natural language definition (or, I'd say, "vision") of certain terms, used in everyday life. However, OSM is an international project and OSM data is used regardless of borders. Therefore, having different definitions based on local vision makes OSM data inconsistent. In certain cases it could even make it really hard to interpret. Let me give some examples:

In Russian language, word "ангар", derived from "hangar" is widely used for quick-assembly hemicylindrical buildings made of metal and used as warehouses in industry. If you will ask anyone in Russia, what is a "hangar", they will say, that it's obvious and will give you that description. For person from Britain it will unlikely make any sense, since in English "hangar" means "building for keeping an aircraft in it". So, if the same British person will see thousands of building=hangar in Russia, located quite far from any airstrip, it will confuse him. Obviously, this is completely wrong usage of building=hangar and it should be actually mapped as building=warehouse, building:material=metal, roof:shape=round, roof:material=metal, building:levels=1or something. But if you'll try to tell Russian mappers about that, many of them will complain, that it's "too complicated", and will continue using building=hangar just "because it's obvious, everybody knows, that it's called a hangar". I know, because I tried. Finally, I just had to re-tag all these warehouses in area I'm watching.

Same thing with American understanding of "pharmacy". In many other countries, "pharmacy" is a shop, where medications and medical supplies are sold. But in the United States it's just another supermarket with everything from medications to food, toys and even electronics. Americans know perfectly what they call "pharmacy". But if you'll show some photos taken in Walgreens or Rite Aid to any person from country, where pharmacies are not a synonym of supermarket (whatever it is), they will never understand, why this business should be tagged shop=pharmacy, while Safeway (called "grocery store" in the United States) is not a "pharmacy", even having a prescription medications department and selling basically the same range of products.

In OpenStreetMap, some people think, that it's okay to rely on their local understanding of words used for tags instead of following documented definitions, because they think inside their own national context. I can't do anything about it, since these people usually opposing the concept of OSM as semantic spatial database in favor of OSM as map (in form of pictures or something else). But I hope, those who can use logic instead of prejudices, understand this problem as well as I do.

To Holmsund and back with my bike

Posted by MMN-o on 24 April 2016 in English (English)

A couple of days ago, April 22nd, I went on a bicycle ride from Umeå to Holmsund and back, passing through the nature reserve Umeälvens Delta. The whole ride, without stops, was probably about 30km but I of course took the opportunity along the way to map some stuff.

First of all I noticed that my mobile phone, using OsmAnd~, routed me through a closed gate at the Alvik airport so I fixed that and added a node with barrier=gate linking the highway and the fence. All the other gates along that fence that I rode past were properly mapped though, so that made me happy.

A couple of kilometers later, having passed under the relatively newly built Botniabanan I got over Bergöbron and came across a cliff along the side of the E 12 highway, just before turning off onto a parking lot where some tracks led up into the small forest. It was the area for my first waypoint, a bird watch tower and a platform. On my way up I noticed a little bench that wasn't mapped, and a path leading further into the forest ending up at a nice little bare_rock area with this view: View from geo:63.7495411,20.2932152

I met some ornithologists down on the viewpoint plateau nearby and they talked about another platform further down along the delta and curious as I was I asked for directions. Turns out [it was easy to find](geo:63.74064,20.28503) and consequently I registered it in OSM and added the path from my GPX track when I got home.

After that I kept riding along the E12 motorway and started to get pretty hungry. My idea was to treat myself to something nice when I got to Holmsund, so while I did notice some points of interest along the way that could be mapped I didn't bother stop more than to take a picture or two. I noticed however when I got home that Ume Älvdal has a really good database on historical facts, sights and paths leading me to write an email to the project about licenses, whether there is cooperation with Wikipedia and/or we can make some nice integration with OSM data etc.

There was only a single restaurant (and additionally one café) mapped in Holmsund, so I went to Kajutan to eat the daily special. Given that their menu contained a couple of lacto-ovo-vegetarian pizzas (including as an alternative for the daily special) I also made sure to tag it diet:vegetarian=yes (and also diet:vegan=no because no such alternatives were available). There was also a wireless internet connection available at the restaurant which I have tagged appropriately.

The next waypoint was the starting point for the national cycling network Sverigeleden (4) as well as verifying the new route for the E12 in Holmsund that hasn't shown up on aerial photography yet. It appeared before my trip that the route started on the actual motorway but when I got there I noticed there was a separate gravel road where the starting point was located. So I made sure the GPX tracks would show how the roads went (remember, no good aerial photography) and then started heading north along the track.

Along the route, heading back home, I noticed some roadsigns, a pizza restaurant (which I mapped), some more cycleways that were clearly separate from the highway and would be beneficial not to just be metatagged. I also found a really weird cycleway that lead across a railway track and didn't seem to lead anywhere special. The area is probably used during the winter to get out on the ice and therefore a specific crossing is available, but during spring it felt pretty useless. There were no camping sites or firepits or anything (and the ground was much too grassy and full of wet holes for it to be a good place to just chill). Anyway, it had this view:

View from geo:63.72218,20.38647

On the way back to Umeå, through Yttertavle, some rain drops started falling but there was never a real shower. So all in all a really great trip, some good mapping was done and hopefully a good project with Ume Älvdal can be started!

Location: Nyvik, Obbola, Umeå, Västerbottens län, Norrland, Sweden

Phụ tùng ô tô Honda Hoàng Tiến

Posted by phutungotohonda on 24 April 2016 in Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt)

Phụ tùng ô tô Honda Hoàng Tiến chuyên kinh doanh phụ tùng ô tô Honda tất cả các dòng xe như: CRV, Civic, Accord, City... Chúng tôi cam kết đúng giá, xuất xứ sản phẩm.

Location: Trần Khát Chân, Hà Nội, Thành phố Hà Nội, 10999, Việt Nam
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