Diary Entries in English

Recent diary entries

print-fold-paste-💢💣💥-paste-fold map

Posted by GOwin on 16 February 2017 in English (English)

dymaxion on icosahedron

It's almost easy, and definitely fun if you have an hour or so to tinker. ;)

I've been trying to look for a mapping activity for kids 6-12, and I remembered a project I saw in an OSM blog 0, and thought I'd try it out.

This is better suited for 11+ years old, including some adults. Maybe.

H/T to smaprs.

Note to self: a bigger paper could make this a lot easier.


Location: Clairmont Townhomes 1, Hagdang Bato Ibaba, Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, 1550, Philippines

High-resolution mapping of the Southern-most location in the Caribbean (Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia)

Posted by MangleBlanco on 15 February 2017 in English (English)

The Caribbean Sea is seen in the imagination of most people as an area of clear waters, paradise islands, and peaceful beaches. In the best of the instances, it is also seen as the land of dwarf mangroves border-lining creeks on coral islands.

However, the Souhtern-most tip of the Caribbean Sea located in Colombia close to the border with Panama is a different story. This location is known in world maps as the Urabá Gulf or the Darién Gulf. It is a U-shape entrance of the sea into South America formed by the clash of the tectonic plates of the Caribbean, Nazca and the Pacific. Such a geological activity gave rise to the Isthmus of Panamá and created a fracture in a North-South direction that formed the main axis of the Urabá Gulf. Therefore, this gulf is surrounded by two main coastal ridges: the Serranía del Darién to the West and the Serranía de Abibe to the East. Both mark the limits of the geological plates, the Isthmus (or Meso America) and South America, respectively.

Such an impressive geological history not only formed a coastline with a distinctive landscape from the rest of the Caribbean in the neighboring areas: Panama and Colombia.

It also promote a major change in the hydrology of an ancient river, the Atrato. Being formed in the upper part of the Western Cordillera of Colombia in the Pacific side of South America, one of the rainiest places on Earth (annual rainfall: >8 meters!), the Atrato river drains a world-class discharge. Such discharge once ran to the Pacific before of the closure of the Panama Isthmus. But nearly 3 million years ago the course of this magnificent river was diverted to the North and ended discharging into the Urabá Gulf, now the Southern-most end of the Caribbean Sea.

The change promoted the mangroves to flourish and growth to a point not seen in the Caribbean coast of Panama and Colombia.

This unique land has been subject of a mapping effort aimed at understanding its biogeographic features and history.

After a decade of scientific exploration, my research group is moving from the fields of coastal ecology, landscape ecology and biogeography, to coastal zone and urban planning, as well as to sustainability of coastal livelihoods.

Mapping human settlements and using open source data has become a priority for us. In the following link the reader and mapper will see the evidence of both the wilderness of the area and the human threats to them:

The rest of the world deserves to know and the local livelihoods need the support to prevent destruction of this natural heritage and better-planning of urban settlement. Open source data seem to me an answer to both task.

Today, I commit myself to provide high-resolution data for mapping for humanitarian projects.

Welcome to the Southern Caribbean.

Juan F. Blanco-Libreros, MangleBlanco

Location: 62, Bellavista, Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia

The Remains of Phoenix Farm, Gedling

Posted by alexkemp on 15 February 2017 in English (English)

Last December I wrote about Phoenix Farm, Gedling, a farm with a direct connection to JRR Tolkien & his most famous book Lord of the Rings. There are a dozen pubs, churches, streets, etc. in Gedling named after this farm + an electoral ward; naturally, the farm itself was knocked down in 1954, and the residential estate named after it was built on it's ashes.

As best as I can tell, this set of garages were built on the site of the farm buildings:-

Phoenix Farm, wings clipped

I've been trying to chase some mapping for this farm for some time, and last Monday mapped Arnold Lane opposite Jessops Lane, where the Farm was supposed to be. It seems that Phoenix Farm (and also Manor Farm, which was on the Jessops Lane side of the road) were originally part of the Manvers Estate (Earls Manvers & Kingston, Duke Kingston & the Marquess of Dorchester; we are talking about the de Manvers and Pierrepont family, those sort of folks). The family began selling some of their estate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (income from rents had crashed); title deeds for properties in Gedling, Carlton and Stoke Bardolph are held by Nottingham University under the reference Ma 3001-5876. I'm waiting for the University to get back to me to be able to view those deeds.

Today Chris Russell, Spatial Data Manager at Gedling District Council, phoned me back after my email was passed to him by Mike Avery, manager at the Planning Department. Chris had access to the detailed Ordnance Survey (OS) mapping, including all historical mapping, and after much conversation & guidance was finally able to tell me that he had been able to locate the farm, but in that name only in 1950 (actually 1952 - see comments). Manor Farm was opposite Phoenix Farm on the other side of the road. And no, none of that mapping could be offered to me due to the OS copyright.

I went on a school trip in my youth to Holland. We were shown a medieval prison. The guide pointed out that the prison was on the first floor, and that some prisoners were routinely starved of food as a form of torture. On the ground floor was the cookhouse — deliberately, so that cooking smells would rise up through the prison & cause their suffering to become more exquisite. After Chris Russell's conversation I knew a little more of how those poor folks in the prison felt. Here's the smell of the info, but you can't have it.

Thurs 16 February: Document Discovery Booked for Monday

The University got in touch & I've arranged to travel to them on Monday next, 20 February (the facility is King's Meadow Campus Nottingham University, Lenton Lane).

Location: Arnold and Carlton, Gedling, Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, England, United Kingdom

Evolution of road network length in Flanders

Posted by joost schouppe on 15 February 2017 in English (English)

Several people have written on the subject before: when you look at something like the evolution of road network length in OSM, the shape of the curve can tell you something about how complete the network is (on the condition that there are enough local mappers).

This graph shows this evolution for the main roads in Flanders.

network growth full size

You can clearly see that the larger roads were mapped faster than the smaller roads. (note: there is a bug in the OSM-history-importer which prevents deleted objects from being removed from a snapshot. This could explain the continued slight growth of main roads. When people improve roads, they will often delete small portions of them.)

Assuming they are all kind of complete now, you can show the evolution of length as a percentage of current length. This shows quite clearly that there are "mapping priorities": the 60% completion mark comes much sooner for motorways then it does for tertiaries.

network completeness full size

While this all sounds quite obvious, it really isn't if you look at the map of road evolution in Flanders. From the very beginning of mapping, contributors have been interested in small roads as well as main roads.

Road completion Full size link. Colors: black: main roads, yellow: minor roads, green: slow roads.

If we extend our view to a wider range of roads, we can see that the main roads in general got mapped first, but minor roads soon came to dominate over them. Service roads, tracks and paths (footway, path, steps, bridleway, pedestrian) tell their own story.

network length full size

(Note: construction and proposed roads are removed from further graphs. I checked taginfo for alternative tagging styles, but they are also quite rare)

Because these last types of roads haven't reached their final form yet, we'll show the yearly growth rate. As this growth was explosive in the first years, we'll start in 2012.

growth rate full size

The graph clearly shows that main roads and minor roads aren't really growing anymore. However, the graphs for service roads, paths and tracks seem to level off in 2014. In fact, paths and tracks go up in 2016. In turn, that means there is a lot of mapping left to do. It is surprising to me that this holds for tracks too, as they can be mapped more easily from aerial imagery only. Open data sources of paths and high resolution aerial imagery (both provided by AGIV) could explain the upshot in the mapping of paths and tracks. Other explanations might be succesful relations with the GR and Trage Wegen organisations, or increased contribution triggered by data use.

Network growth versus amount of work

One more thing I do want to share now is the amount of work that is being done. While network completeness was achieved quite fast for main roads, that does not mean that people stopped caring after it was finished. In the animated map or primaries, trunks and motorways below, gray means "existing" and black means "been worked on this month".

primary and bigger map full size

These edits can be anything, but here are two examples: work on naming roads and on speed limits. From the beginning of the project, most residential roads were mapped with a name. Length of unnamed residentials started decreasing as soon as 2012. It will likely never reach zero, as many small bits and pieces are hard to assign to any one street. Also, there are in fact roads that do not have a name.

named residential roads full size

For speed limits, the proportion that has a limit is much lower. Total length of untagged roads only started decreasing in 2014. This tagging is probably slower because it isn't as important for routing and is sometimes seen as a consequence of road classification and location.

speed limits full size

Measuring edits

These graphs compare the added length for main road types (right) and the number of edits by road type (left). It is quite clear that mapping new roads peaked as early as 2008, but the amount of work done on these roads has in fact only gone up until 2014.

edits and growth full size

(Note: here, the number of edits is the sum of the number of days a certain way has been edited. The category in which it shows is the last main tag for that day.)

These two graphs show the type of changes for primary and tertiary roads. Traditionally, geometry changes are the most important. As time goes by, their importance starts to lower, and editing tags becomes more important.

edits mains full size

In a more general sense, this holds true too. The amount of edits peaks much later than the adding of new roads. In fact, for most road types, it doesn't seem to go down at all.

edits and growth full size

What's next?

As usual, I'm torn between answering more and more questions with the data, or scaling it up to more areas. Luckily, for your basic statistics needs, more and more options are finally popping up. See the road statistics provided by Mapbox, Steve Coast or the Missing Maps.

In the case of road network completeness, some efforts have been made to compare current OSM length to CIA stats to measure map completeness. This is problematic, because even if governments have decent stats, they are by their own local definition. Hence the comparison might be off. In the case of Flanders, we have a single, very good source for road lengths. One of the things I want to do next, is to compare local lengths in OSM and official data. This could show is where OSM is probably not finished yet. But you can also calculate this based on the shape of the curves we've seen before. If both approaches give similar results, that would clearly imply that you do not need external datasources to evaluate OSM data completeness.

Another thing is that we have noticed many new mappers first starting to map local paths. I'd like to see if this is a real evolution.

By focusing on road length, you measure both network completeness and level of detail. But neither very well. From a perspective of network completeness, you would have to discount things like cycleways that are mapped as separate ways, or only count dual carriageways once. An analysis detecting really new geometries would do that. I'm planning to do something like that "soon". On the other hand, from a perspective of level of detail road length lacks subtlety. Take the example of cycleway networks. You would have to count all highway=cycleway, but also all the roads that have cycleway tags as part of the cycle network too.

But I told myself not to write articles that are too long to read in one go :) I might have failed.

Bonus: more animated maps

Because they are fun to make and to watch, here are some more animated maps.

Showing all major roads

Overlaying OSM on top of official road data (Wegenregister), to show where the map is complete

Focusing on "slow roads" (in green)

All data in this article copyright OpenStreetMap contributors, free to reproduce anywhere if source included. Download processed data here.

Validating Wikidata tags on OpenStreetMap

Posted by Amisha Singla on 13 February 2017 in English (English)

The OpenStreetMap database has been getting enriched with Wikidata tags on a daily basis, with over 500,000 feature tagged till date. This is generally done based on matching the name and location of a popular map feature to its corresponding Wikidata item if it exists. Check the OSM Wiki page on Wikidata for more information.

This is currently done manually and requires local knowledge to avoid connecting unrelated features between the two databases. The most common case of mixup are:

  • Features with the same name exist and lie in entirely different geographical area eg. City named Salem in US and in India.

  • Features with the same name but of a different type in the same location eg. A railway station matched to a nearby landmark of the same name

In such cases, there are high chances of linking wrong wikidata items to OSM feature if one doesn't match the locations of both features correctly. Apart from this, there happens a lot of human error in copy pasting the wrong wikidata QID. The following post introduces a validator tool for reviewing these mismatches based purely on location.

Validating wikidata tags in OSM features using wikidata-osm validator.

wikidata-osm is a visual validator tool which spots possible Wikidata tag mismatches by comparing the location of the OSM and Wikidata feature and highlights those where the distance between these is greater than threshold distance set by the user.

Validator tool Highlight Wikidata tagged map features based on the distance between the features on OSM and Wikidata databases

Using the tool

Each circle on the map represents an OSM feature taht has a Wikidata tag. The color and size of the circle depends on the distance between OSM feature and Wikidata QID. The larger red circles represent features which are having high chances of being erroneous while the smaller green circles represents features with less chances of being erroneous.

Threshold distance on the left top pane has to be set by user. It varies depending on the type of place one is reviewing. For example, while reviewing wikidata tags for large countries, one can set the threshold as ~ 100 km. Because there is a possibility that its wikidata coordinates can be 100 km apart from OSM coordinates. But for reviewing small countries , neighbourhood places, this value can go down.

using the tool

Clicking on any circle takes to above view. This represents the visual representation of locations of both wikidata item and OSM feature. Also it lists the tags, wikidata item URL and OSM feature URL in the right panel, which could help in validating the mismatch.

The tool was made to help various communities review and improve Wikidata tagging in their local areas, since there was no existing tools for this. The features displayed on the map is a static snapshot from December 2016, but clicking any feature will calculate the latest location information from OSM and Wikidata.

Feel free to play with the code on Github to make any improvements that will make it easier to validate Wikidata tags.

Other Wikidata validation tools

Yurik has done a tremendous amount of work in the last few months to bring OSM and Wikidata closer. He recently spoke about using the instanceOf property of the linked Wikidata features to validate potentially incorrectly matched features in this OSM-talk thread and an open list of questions to evolve best practices to link the features between the two databases.

If you have any feedback or ideas on how to improve such processes or some other tools that were missed out it would be great to hear.

Location: Indiranagar 1st Stage, Indiranagar, Bengaluru, Bangalore Urban, Karnataka, 560001, India

Improving the map of Andahuaylas

Posted by ediyes on 12 February 2017 in English (English)

Andahuaylas is my hometown!❤️ This couldn't miss being a part of OpenStreetMap. Since last few months, I have started improving the existing streets, adding names, mapping points of interest, improving parks, etc. to popular places of Andahuaylas and in two of its districts Talavera and San Jerónimo.

image Adding POIs in main streets of Andahuaylas image Adding POIs in Talavera image Adding POIs in San Jerónimo

The local knowledge helped me to add many points of interest and I also did Mapillary 👇 image image

The results were:

  • POIs: 238 (restaurants, shops, banks, school, others)
  • Landuse: 88
  • Leisure: 64
  • Building: 129
  • Highway: 186

I will continue to work 💪 and add all points of interest in the different districts of Andahuaylas such that the map is updated frequently.

Easy Access to United States NAIP Imagery for JOSM

Posted by maxerickson on 10 February 2017 in English (English)

In January a post to the talk-us mailing list mentioned the NAIP imagery services from the USDA. With the discontinuation of the "USGS Large Scale Imagery" service, these layers have become one of the better ways to access recent imagery in the United States.

To make it easier to add the layers to JOSM, I put together a page with JOSM Remote Control links:

Much of the same imagery is also available from a different service, with the continental US as one layer:, but it seems that imagery is not immediately updated and is run from a different server, so good to be aware of both sources.

Rendering detailed road areas

Posted by PlaneMad on 10 February 2017 in English (English)

There are a couple of proposed tagging schemas for intense mappers to map street areas and road markings to enable a much more detailed road rendering with accurate widths and lanes.

Proposed tagging schema for street areas

Mappers are already active in Poland using this proposal and also have a renderer in place to visualize this with pretty impressive results.

Road area tag rendering from OSM Poland

The next level is going to be having accurate lane marking within the surfaces, but it looks like till date there has been no successful attempt to render roads to such a level of detail. A few weeks ago, Rasagy from Mapbox wrote about styling individual lanes using the Studio tool. The approach uses individual lanes geometries and seem to give good results, but involves a lot of mapping effort.

An attempt to style individual lanes using Mapbox Studio

If anyone is interested to try their hand at styling roads to such level of details, there is a sample intersection that has been traced by Chetan_Gowda and Fa7C0N on the OSM sandbox in Manhattan. If you are using Mapbox Studio, you can directly start styling the data by adding this tileset to a new style. Alternatively, you can use a geojson of the data to use in any other styling tool or to just explore the tags used.

Looking forward to seeing any interesting experimental outputs :)

Transcontinental highway interconnecting Brazil to Germany

Posted by naoliv on 9 February 2017 in English (English)

Yep, we can temporarily go from Brazil to Germany by car:

Thanks to somebody changing nodes coordinates using Level0 (I am not blaming Level0, but the person).

Validation feedback can provide important social affirmation

Posted by dekstop on 8 February 2017 in English (English)

After my talk at State of the Map in Brussels, Nick Allen asked: are newcomers to HOT more likely to be retained if we give them positive validation feedback? And conversely, do we discourage them if we invalidate their work? I had no answer at the time, in part because many validation interactions are not public. However, I agreed with his observation that these are likely important early encounters, and that we should make an effort to understand them better. In particular, we should be able to provide basic guidance to validators, based on empirical observations of past outcomes. What are the elements of impactful feedback?

I spoke to Tyler Radford about these concerns that same day, and within a few days we signed an agreement which gives me permission to look at the data, provided I do not share any personal information. The full write-up of the resulting research is now going through peer review, and I will share it when that's done. In the meantime, I thought I should publish the most important findings.

Manually labelling 1,300 messages...

I spent the next months diving into the data, reviewing 1,300 validation messages that have been sent to first-time mappers. I labelled the content of each message using models from motivational psychology, and feedback in education settings. For now I'll skip a detailed discussion of the details, but feel free to ask questions in the comments.

I assessed the impact of different kinds of newcomer feedback:

  • Positive performance feedback: messages including comments like "good job", "great work", "looks good", ...
  • Negative performance feedback: "doesn’t look complete", "missing tags", "needs improvement", ...
  • Corrective feedback: guidance about specific improvements to improve future work, including links to documentation.
  • Verbal rewards: messages containing positive performance feedback, gratitude ("thanks!"), or encouragement ("keep mapping").

Here's a chart of the frequency of each type of feedback across the messages I labelled:

Use of feedback techniques in validation messages

To measure the effect of these feedback types, I collected the contributions for each newcomer over a 45-day period after their initial edit, and labelled the content of the first feedback message they received during this time. I then observed for how many days they remained active, or whether they dropped out (as measured with an additional 45-day period of inactivity). I then used a Cox proportional hazards model to explain the retention rates we observed, based on a set of features and control variables. This is comparable to a regression analysis, but specifically intended to model participant "survival". In the context of this study, the term `hazard' is a synonym for the risk of abandoning HOT participation. A hazards model yields a hazard rate (or rate of risk) for each contributing factor, denoting the relative increase in hazard when a particular feature is present. For example, a hazard rate of 2.0 means that the person is twice as likely to stop contributing within the observation period, compared to the average. Conversely, a low hazard rate of 0.5 means they are twice as likely to still remain active at the end of the observation period.

Social affirmation matters: someone else cares

Maybe most importantly, I found that the feedback can be an important source of social affirmation, which in turn can improve newcomer retention. This effect is most clear among newcomers who contributed comparatively less on their first day (mapping less that the median of 75 minutes), possibly because they have low intrinsic motivation or self-efficacy. Among these, people who received verbal rewards in their first feedback message were significantly more likely to keep mapping, at a reduction of the hazard rate to 80%. In comparison, newcomers who already start with a high degree of engagement may not require such affective-supportive feedback to remain engaged.

This makes sense when you consider the wider context. The process of contributing to HOT online can be considered a depersonalised form of interaction: it is often focused on the task, rather than the learner. In the absence of other prominent social cues, small phrases of support may have a large effect. In the case of validation feedback, it's likely also important that this is not simply an automated message. Instead, someone else looked over your work and then took the effort to write some kind words.

To my surprise, negative performance feedback in itself is not necessarily discouraging to newcomers: while it may demotivate some individuals, in aggregate across all newcomers there was no significant effect on retention. This includes instances of invalidated tasks, and negative performance feedback such as "your buildings are all untagged". This may be because the feedback is private: people don't have to be concerned about the impact on their reputation, and can focus on improving their skills. In communities like Wikipedia where feedback tends to be public (in the form of comments or reversions), it was found that negative feedback can harm newcomer retention. It's also worth mentioning that even "negative" feedback in HOT still tends to be polite and constructive: HOT validators are generally a very polite bunch, based on the messages I've seen. They might simply point out that you forgot to square your buildings.

The timing of feedback matters: feedback that is sent a week after a contribution is significantly less likely to still have a motivational impact. In comparison, feedback that is sent within 28 hours or less (the median delay) yielded a reduction of the hazard rate to 80%. Any additional day of delay increased the hazard rate.

I now believe that this places validators at the core of the HOT community: for many contributors who can't attend a mapathon, and who haven't subscribed to the mailing list or joined IRC, validation feedback is their first experience of a social encounter. For a number of reasons, the current iteration of the tasking manager doesn't easily support such interactions (maybe a topic for a future post); but I'm looking forward to the next iteration, which is already in planning. As I've learned through discussions, the validator community already has some great ideas about improving it even further.

The fine print

First off, this is an observational study, which comes with some constraints: we can identify links between validation styles and outcomes, and control for confounding factors through careful model design, which gives us some confidence in the findings. However, we would have to run actual experiments to confirm each link.

The models behind these findings account for a number of confounding factors. For example, I consider each newcomer's initial contribution activity: were they already enthusiastic contributors to begin with? I also look at the particular project they start with: did they join during a disaster campaign, possibly in a wave of public interest? Such newcomers tend to not stick around for long.

And my usual caveat applies: I assessed the impact on contributor activity and retention, but not on contribution quality. In part because I still haven't found a good approach to assessing contribution quality at this scale: there is no ground truth available for comparisons, and contribution practices are diverse and often specific to the geographic/thematic context. Developing methods to assess data quality at this scale is a research project in its own right.

This is certainly not the final word on validation feedback, and I expect many others will add to this (maybe in the comments)? But it can hopefully serve as one contribution to our growing body of knowledge about how best to support our maturing community.

Highways & Byways: Roman & Drovers’ Roads in Ware, Hertfordshire

Posted by alexkemp on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

Most of the places that I've mapped across the last 10 months have been ~1930s with the occasional Victorian terraces (1880s). The topic today arose from looking at the deeds of a 1906 house but, as the first words of the first line below makes clear, has far more ancient origins:–

  • In 13th Century England the following two, apparently contradictory, statements are both true:–
  1. Most people were born, lived & died within the same 5 mile (8km) radius.
  2. England was covered with a network of streets & roads each many hundreds of miles long; further, these streets & roads were continually thronged with people travelling long distances upon them.

“Streets” here refers mostly to the well-known Roman Roads. During research for this Diary entry I was surprised to discover that Ware was positioned upon Ermine Street, a Roman Road that stretches from London to York & crosses the Humber close to my birth town of Hull. For reference, here is a map of Roman Roads:–

Roman roads in England

I've travelled Ermine Street a lot. My personal research suggests that, whilst the Roman Roads may have been occasionally used in Medieval times for long journeys, the local people had their own network of paths (nothing to do with the Romans) and which they preferred. So, the A15 runs north from Lincoln as straight as an arrow along Ermine Street, but it is perfectly clear that the locals preferred the B1398 which takes the same general direction but follows each field boundary & every circumlocution that it can find.

Well, that's the Highways covered, but now the Byways.

“Roads” here refers to the less-well-known Drovers’ Roads. In order to spot one of these you will need to spot something like the following (hint: it is the words “Public Byway” that is the secret signal):–

Public Byway sign

When I were a lad the black ‘n’ white TV would often show black ‘n’ white cowboy movies. Frequently, these movies would involve a bunch of cowboys driving hundreds or thousands of cattle many hundreds of miles across the plains of America. Amazingly, exactly the same business happened in the UK, and across the same distances, and hundreds of years before the USA. Perhaps the main difference was that (at least in the movies) in the USA it was always cattle, but in the UK as well as oxen & cattle, there were also sheep, geese, turkey, pig, and horse drives.

The same routes were used every time & in places became worn down by the repetition (it is thought that some drove routes may have been used since prehistoric times). Many were much wider than other roads, at least 40 feet wide (12m) and up to 90 feet (27m) wide on occasion.

It seems that Ware had lots of Drovers’ Roads (look at ‘Musley Lane’) and, of course, pubs such as The Standard (now gone) to cater to the Drovers. However, as towns began to expand, the desire to allow a 12m road to remain diminished. In addition, such roads would have been anathema during the Enclosures of 1760 & later (aka legal theft). Nevertheless they do remain, much diminished in size and length, as Public Byways (and just to show how much of this info is new, notice that that wiki-link has zero mention of Drovers’ Roads).

So, how did I discover this?

One of the houses on Hampden Hill, Ware had a house-name & the lady of the house was available to give permission for me to photograph it. I asked if she knew the start_date which led to a short conversation, and she invited me in to look at the house deeds. These turned out to be a stack of vellum sheets (parchment — damn expensive stuff) more than an inch (2.54cm) thick, each covered with beautiful Copperplate script (the lady's Solicitor gave her these documents on completion of purchase; they used to be held by Land Registry but were all digitised some years ago & are now routinely returned to the house owner). A builder in 1904 bought Plot 27 (and also later Plot 28) for £30 GBP ($37 USD, €35 Euro) from The Commonwealth Estate (land formerly owned by Cambridge University). The builder was tied up with someone else, and it was all very complicated (I know already that most folks at the time rented — as a common example — on a 100 year lease rather than owned their house). It seems that the house was built on the two plots sometime after 1906.

The above was extremely interesting, but my attention was drawn by something at the extreme top-left of the site drawing (I wish now that I had photographed it): passing across the corner of the plot of what is now 17 Hampden Hill was a wide roadway (wrong number! - see below), and written on the drawing was “Old Drovers’ Road”. North of the plot for Hampden Hill is King George’s Field Recreation Ground; the Old Drovers’ Roadway came up from the left of all the plots for Hampden Hill, passed across the top-left of that plot, and continued across the southern-base of King George’s Field to the right. I was intrigued; what on earth was a Drovers’ Road?

Later in my mapping I had a chat with the son of the owner for the house on the corner of Hampden Hill and Hampden Hill Close (he came up to me with one of those “what on earth do you think you are doing?” questions whilst I was photographing the street-sign). The house turns out to have a Medieval hedge that runs along Hampden Hill Close.

So, that old drover's road starts in modern times as a Public Byway sign (9 miles) (14km) on Musley Lane and travels along a footpath which terminates at the end of Hampden Hill Close. The Byway signs finish at this point, but it definitely continues along Hampden Hill Close (it's a cul-de-sac), then Hampden Hill to the top-centre & the opening into King George’s Field. It then travels behind the Jolly Bargeman & will still have another 8 miles to go!

Coda 1: This Drovers Road on OS 1.25k Historic (OSM-Limited)

(below is a single tile obtained via JOSM; these tiles seem not to want to sit together on the same line; I tried using HTML <table> tags to stitch some tiles together to show a better view, but this OSM Markdown did not want to know).

Old Drovers’ Road, Ware

The vertical road above is Hampden Hill up to the 1906 house; the modern road continues up and turns a right-angle to the right. The grey road that crosses above it (marked elsewhere as ‘FP’, although other footpaths are shown as dotted black lines) is the Old Drovers’ Road. It begins on Musley Lane exactly where the modern signpost is and follows the modern Public Byway very closely indeed. Hampden Hill Close is exactly on it's southern border almost all the way to Hampden Hill and it actually passes through numbers 11 & 9 Hampden Hill rather than 17 as I said before. It also leaves the modern Hampden Hill exactly at the point where the modern King George’s Field footpath begins & even follows the north-east footpath through the recreation ground. It's quite uncanny. That modern footpath turns sharply to the right & emerges on Cromwell Road, whereas the Old Drovers’ Road continues straight ahead & behind the pub, running parallel, but 100 yards or so to the west, of Cromwell Road.

This ancient road then gets lost on the modern map, although small traces are left behind. Tracing it to the north we see that Dark Lane (a bridle path) lies on the route, as does an un-named bridle route trace part of a spur that goes east via close to the join of the modern Woodley Road with Cromwell Road.

It is the fact that ancient ways continue to influence folks today that causes me to be fascinated by this stuff. One little connected story to finish:–

I was visiting my grand-kids in Ware last year when they said that they were going to give Buddy (their yappy little dog) a walk, and would I like to come? We ended up in the King George’s Field park, then into Hampden Hill and, sure ’nuff, down the Public Byway on to Musley Lane, then home. All these centuries later, folks are still walking those tracks.

Coda 2: Yet More Intelligence

In 1904 the Drovers' Road was the only road that existed to the East of Ware (in JOSM, use the NLS Bartholomew 1897-1907 Imagery). It travelled from Fanhams Hall Road in the north to Musley Lane in the south. By the 1930s a number of things had happened (the NLS OS 1.25k 1st Series 1937-1961 imagery is useful here):–

  1. The 1920s & 1930s building spurt that followed WW1 had begun to extend from Victorian New Road/Musley Hill eastwards into the Commonwealth Estate.
  2. Such building stopped at the Drovers' Road, in the same way as the earlier Hampden Hill had stopped at that road.
  3. The Drovers' Road fell into disuse. The far-northern end was retained as was the far-southern end, but the middle section stopped being a ‘road’ & became a ‘footpath’. As development continued & memories faded or died, even the footpath became a distant story buried within house back-gardens or behind the pub or upon a piece of parchment.

Via an East Herts Council map (up-to-date map supplied by the OS; have patience, it is dog slow) I found that the southern footpath is also called “Dark Lane”, which suggests that the entire section of road may have been called that. I've not spotted any signposts with that name on the path, but will ask around at my next visit. If anyone says yes I will name it!


Experimenting with Dingus I was able to build a Markdown <table> that made a decent fist of stitching OS 1.25k Historic tiles together to show the route of that Old Drovers' Road. However, then found that this Diary's version of Markdown did not support it. Bugger.

Location: Ware CP, East Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, East of England, England, United Kingdom

Mapping Errors in Guatemala and Honduras

Posted by Sunfishtommy on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

I am writing this because i am not sure who would be best to talk to. I map heavily in latin America and while looking around recently using the ITO maps I realized that a lot of edits had been made in a short amount of time in Guatemala and Honduras. (

It seemed like an import which I thought was unusual in Central America as there is usually not that much data to rely upon. Upon Closer look I realized that it was actually a huge mapping project with HOT OSM Like this one (

But when I looked at the data I realized that the data is incredibly rough, incomplete with often times incorrect geometry and attributes. This area here ( and here ( help to illustrate the problem. Random sections of road are marked as high priority. Upon closer examination you will see that often times the geometry of these roads is also extremely rough, with many roads missing and the ones that are mapped seem to be have done at random.

On HOT osm the areas are almost completely marked finished with no reviews. as can be seen her on project 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.

I am wondering what can be done to rectify this situation, and what can be done to prevent this in the future. It is very confusing to have this much low quality data being imputed into the map in mass like this. And to have this much low quality data dumped into the map lowers the quality of the data overall.

What can we do to fix this?

Why I'd dig becoming a member of HOT

Posted by dMoriarty on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

Hello HOT!

Thanks to John Crowley and Nate Smith for nominating me, it's much appreciated.

My name is Dylan Moriarty and I'm a designer at Development Seed. I've been involved in OpenStreetMap through learning Cartography at UW-Madison, & have quickly found HOT as one of the best places to contribute.

When I initially used OSM, it was simply to add in buildings to the city I was living in at the time. Then during the Ferguson protests I saw someone tweet out a call to help map Ferguson which had previously been scarcely covered. That introduced me to the idea of emergency response mapping and the amazing potential of OSM to help people on the ground level. Being able to directly aid the people giving aid is an incredible capability.

Since then I've been fortunate enough to work closely with HOT, including designing and building out the new Missing Maps website, designing the OpenAerialMap landing page, hosting various mapathons using the Tasking Manager, and helping update the Hot Summit site. It's been amazing to work with such an international and well meaning group as the OSM Community on each.

I'm interested in becoming a voting member as I see it as a great way to both add more firepower to the design aspect of HOT, and add another user focused voice in the organizations direction.

Cheers, -Dylan

Location: Capitol Hill, Washington, District of Columbia, 20540, United States of America

My Contributions

Posted by Shawontrek on 7 February 2017 in English (English)
Royal Hotel
Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque
Beauty Lacchi Ghor & Faluda

Durga Hotel

Kartalab Khan Mosque / Begum Bazar Shahi Masjid

Bombay Sweets & Chanachur
Alauddin Sweetmeat
Nurani Cold Drinks
Shomsher Ali'r Vuna Khichuri

Chalk Bazar Shahi Mosque Jorpul Lane Taki Puri-Khan Hote Hotel Al Razzak International Bismillah Kabab Ghar Dhaka Misti Ghor Boro Katra

Rebati Mohan Lodge/Sutrapur Jamidar Bari
Buddur Purir Dokan
Beauty Boarding
Banglabazar Book Market
St Thomas Church
Bangladesh Brahmo Samaj
Islampur Police Fari
Tati Bazar Shib Mondir
Vishnupriya Vojanalay


Bibi Ka Rouja
Ruplal House
Cafe Corner
Rahmania Kabab Ghor

Independence Monument And Museum
Hazrat Hazi Khaja Shahbaz Khan Mosque
Tin Netar Majar / Shrine of Three National Leaders
Musa Khan Mosque
Rose Garden Palace
Shwamibag Road
Dhaka Christian Cemetery

Liberation War Museum
Binot Bibi Mosque
Mama Hotel
Campus Shadow of University of Dhaka
Shiva Temple
Nimtoli Gate
New Purnima Snacks Bar
Postal Museum
ISKCON Govinda Hotel

Hazi Nanna Biriyani

Showkat Kabab Ghar

Chitmorom Buddhist Temple/চিৎমরম বৌদ্ধ বিহার

Mustakim Varieties Kebab & Soup

Rabbani Hotel and Restaurant

Sonamia Mistanno Vandar

Barisal Muslim Hotel

Chourangi Hotel

Bismillah Dilli Kaba / বিসমিল্লাহ্ দিল্লি কাবাব

Shahi Muri Vorta / শাহী মুড়ি ভর্তা

HOT Voting Member Nomination

Posted by mingo23 on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

Dear HOT members,

my name is Marco Minghini and I come from Como (Italy). First of all, I wish to express my gratitude to Cristiano Giovando for suggesting my name for HOT membership. I would be delighted to become part of such a great community.

I have carried out my studies in Environmental Engineering (specialization in Geomatics and GIS) at Politecnico di Milano, where I obtained a BSc in 2008, a MSc in 2010 (both with honours) and a PhD in 2014. Since then I am working as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the GEOlab (Geomatics and Earth Observation laboratory) of Politecnico di Milano in Milan (Italy).

I am passionate about open source software, that I use everyday in my research activity, and enthusiastic of open data. Since 2015 I am a Charter Member of the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) thanks to the contribution I have given in the education, promotion and development of open source geospatial software and open geodata. Despite knowing the OpenStreetMap project since my MSc studies, it was only thanks to my PhD research (focused on Volunteered Geographic Information and Citizen Science) that I really started to study the project, to understand its evolution and impact, to analyse its applications and to use its data. After almost three years since then, I have become an experienced researcher on OSM, particularly on topics such as OSM data quality, OSM contribution patterns and contributors' motivations, and exploitation of OSM data to derive concrete products like land use and land cover maps.

Soon after my first OSM edit in 2014 I discovered the impressive work of HOT and I started devoting my time as a volunteer of this network. In addition to being a proud humanitarian mapper, over the last couple of years I have been supporting HOT and Missing Maps through the organization of mapathons at Politecnico di Milano (e.g. after the earthquakes in Nepal in 2015 and Ecuador/Japan in 2016) and the provision of support/training to different communities. When organizing these mapathons I had the plasure to know and to personally interact with Tyler Radford and Cristiano Giovando (who gave an exciting live skype call during our event for OSM GeoWeek 2015) as well as Blake Girardot, who often setup customized mapping projects for us. In particular, the kinds of events I am most proud of are the so-called "minimapathons", that are mapathons for primary school children. Notably, in March 2016 my colleagues and I organized a successful humanitarian mapathon by involving 200 10-year old students in mapping buildings for a project on malaria in Swaziland (see this post on HOT's blog).

I am also an active promoter of HOT and its activities among my research and professional network. As an example, as the responsible and point of contact of GEOlab for the GeoForAll network, in 2016 I gave a webinar on how to organize a humanitarian mapathon. I have also promoted humanitarian mapping at national events, for instance the 2016 conference of the Italian OSM community (OSMit 2016). In few days (on Friday, February 10) I will give an invited speech on "OSM for emergencies" at OSMit 2017, where I will present the activities of HOT and focus on the mapping effort of the Italian community after the terrible earthquakes occurred in 2016.

Finally, some students at Politecnico di Milano have recently found PoliMappers, an official student association which became the first European node of the YouthMappers network. I was proud that they asked me to become the Faculty Mentor of this association. The activities planned include both field mapping and remote mapping on HOT's tasks and I have already given some tutorials on how to use OSM mapping tools (until now iD, JOSM and Field Papers). Finally, last year I made my first donation to HOT as I really believe in the value of its activities.

With no doubt I will continue to support HOT in 2017 and beyond. In particular, as I have just become the Secretary of ISPRS WG IV/4 “Collaborative Crowdsourced Cloud Mapping (C³M)” as well as a member of the new EU COST Action CA15212 “Citizen Science to promote creativity, scientific literacy, and innovation throughout Europe”, I plan to make more and more people in these networks aware about the potential of humanitarian mapping using OSM. Thanks to the collaboration with PoliMappers, I will of course continue to organize humanitarian mapping events and provide the required training and support. Finally, depending on the time required, I would like to start being involved in one of the HOT Working Groups – perhaps the one on Training.

My OSM username is mingo23 and my Twitter profile is @MarcoMinghini. Here you can find an updated list of all my activities (such as events organized and papers written) related to OSM.

Thank you very much for your attention and for considering my nomination. Best regards and happy mapping to everyone!


Location: Città Studi, Milan, Lombardy, Italy

Why I would like to join HOTOSM

Posted by Mapanauta on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

Note: English version [EN]- Versión en Español abajo [SP]- Version Française ci-dessous [FR]

[EN] Why I would like to join HOTOSM

It was short time after Nepal earthquake when I understood and measured the power of mapping, what it could do to support people in need and how open mapping could be saving lives. I start gathering with a small group of mappers is Mexico City who got together every Wednesday evening, I wanted to learn and see what else could be done. In State of the Map US 2015 with my colleague Andres Ortiz we presented “When will Mexico be navigable on OpenStreetMap” working in a technology company, Telenav, helped us to get resources to start improving the map from the roots, we started an import project to improve the Administrative boundaries of the country going from 69 valid boundaries to 2,457 . After that conference in New York everything started moving faster. In September 2015 the 30th anniversary of Mexico city earthquake took place, the National Digital Strategy Office of the Government of Mexico in the one Rodolfo Wilhelmy was Open Data Director at that time invited me to help with part of the coordination having a Earthquake drill and making different Government entities to understand the value of Open Mapping. Thanks to the experience we gained as a community with the Earthquake simulation, at the time Hurricane Patricia was about to hit the Pacific Coast of Mexico, more than 500 mappers helped to map the area in less than 48 hours following the example from Nepal. All this community efforts were mentioned in the Internet day by the President of Mexico mentioning how HOTOSM volunteers supported this national emergency.

Along with members of the LatAm and Mexico community I engage in every conference and every workshop the importance of Humanitarian Mapping and how we can improve people lives and to have a response not only after disaster but also considering long term projects in the ones we can work together with Governments and Civil Society to reduce disaster damage with the support of maps. I gave a talk in HOT summit last year named “Future of Humanitarian Mapping in Mexico” mentioning all these topics.

I feel very honored that friends like Humberto Yances and Rodolfo Wilhelmy contacted me to see if I could be interested in being a HOT member, without hesitating I told them it is a recognition I will be grateful to have. One of the opportunities I would like to focus with the National Center for Disaster Prevention of Mexico is to teach its officials how to map and create an internal group of trainers as a sustainable guarantee. The National Digital Strategy office mentioned they are very interested in support this initiative starting to map the temporary shelters and then mapping a pilot potential risk area that can show results and motivate more regions.

At this moment most of HOTOSM successful histories are in Africa and Southeast Asia, I am convinced my contribution to the organization can help to create more successful histories in other parts of the world so we can mitigate together the damages caused by disasters and create effective protocols for emergency management.

[SP] Por qué me gustaría ser parte de HOTOSM

Poco tiempo después del terremoto de Nepal fue cuando comprendí y pude medir el poder del mapeo así como ver lo que se podría hacer para apoyar a las personas necesitadas y cómo la cartografía abierta y participativa podría salvar vidas. Empecé a reunirme con un pequeño grupo de mapeadores en la Ciudad de México que se reunían todos los miércoles por la noche, quería aprender y ver qué más se podría hacer. En State of the Map 2015 con mi colega Andrés Ortiz presentamos "¿Cuándo será México navegable en OpenStreetMap", al trabajar en una empresa de tecnología, Telenav, nos ayudó a obtener recursos para comenzar a mejorar el mapa desde la raiz, comenzamos un proyecto de importación para mejorar las límites administrativos del país que solamente tenía en ese momento 69 límites válidos y lo mejoramos a 2,457. Después de esa conferencia en Nueva York todo comenzó a moverse más rápido. En septiembre de 2015 tuvo lugar el trigésimo aniversario del terremoto de Ciudad de México, la oficina Nacional de Estrategia Digital del Gobierno de México en la que Rodolfo Wilhelmy fue Director de Datos Abiertos en ese momento me invitó a ser parte de la coordinación de un simulacro de terremoto y de esa forma hacer que diferentes entidades gubernamentales entiendan el valor del Open Mapping. Gracias a la experiencia adquirida como comunidad con el simulacro del terremoto, cuando el huracán Patricia estaba a punto de llegar a la costa del Pacífico de México, más de 500 voluntarios ayudaron a mapear el área en menos de 48 horas siguiendo el ejemplo de Nepal. Todos estos esfuerzos de la comunidad fueron mencionados en el día de Internet por el Presidente de México en el que comentó cómo los voluntarios de HOTOSM apoyaron esta emergencia nacional.

Junto con miembros de la comunidad de LatAm y México cada vez que tengo la oportunidad de participar en conferencias y talleres siempre comparto la importancia del mapeo humanitario y cómo podemos mejorar la vida de las personas y tener una respuesta no sólo después de la catastrofe sino también considerar proyectos a largo plazo en los que podemos trabajar juntos con los gobiernos y la sociedad civil para reducir el daño que pueden causar los desastres con el apoyo de mapas. Di una charla en la HOT Summit el año pasado llamada "El futuro del mapeo humanitario en México" mencionando todos estos temas.

Me siento muy honrada de que amigos como Humberto Yances y Rodolfo Wilhelmy me contactaron para ver si estaba interesada en ser un miembro de HOT, sin dudar les dije que sería un reconocimiento que estaría honrada de obtener.

Una de las oportunidades que me gustaría desarrollar sería con el Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres de México en el cual se podría enseñar a sus funcionarios cómo mapear y crear un grupo interno de formadores como una garantía sostenible. La oficina de Estrategia Nacional mencionó que están muy interesados en apoyar esta iniciativa comenzando a mapear los refugios temporales y luego mapear un área de riesgo latente como prueba piloto que pueda mostrar resultados y motivar a más regiones.

En este momento la mayoría de las historias exitosas de HOTOSM se encuentran en África y el Sureste de Asia, estoy convencida de que mi contribución a la organización puede ayudar a crear más historias exitosas en otras partes del mundo para mitigar juntos los daños causados por desastres y crear protocolos eficaces para la gestión de emergencias.

[FR] Pourquoi je souhaite faire partie de HOTOSM

Peu après le tremblement de terre au Népal, j'ai compris et mesuré le potentiel de la cartographie, ce qu'elle peut faire pour aider les gens dans le besoin et comment la cartographie ouverte peut sauver des vies. J'ai commencé à me réunir avec un petit groupe de volontaires de la Ville de Mexico qui se réunissait tous les mercredi soir, je voulais apprendre et voir ce qui pouvait être fait. Lors du State of the Map US 2015, avec mon collègue Andres Ortiz, nous avons présenté "Quand le Mexique sera-t-il navigable sur OpenStreetMap". Travaillant dans une entreprise technologique, Telenav, nous avons pu obtenir des ressources pour commencer à améliorer la carte depuis les bases, nous avons commencé un projet d'importation pour améliorer les vecteurs des frontières administratives du pays allant de 69 limites valides à 2457 . Après cette conférence à New York, tout s'est accéléré. En septembre 2015 a eu lieu le 30è anniversaire du tremblement de terre de la ville de Mexico, le Bureau National de Stratégie Digital du Gouvernement du Mexique dans lequel Rodolfo Wilhelmy était Directeur des Données ouvertes, m'a invitée à aider avec une partie de la coordination avec un sondage et faire en sorte que différentes entités gouvernementales comprennent la valeur de l'Open Mapping. Grâce à l'expérience que nous avons acquise en tant que communauté lors de la simulation du tremblement de terre, au moment où l'ouragan Patricia allait frapper la côte du Pacifique au Mexique, plus de 500 volontaires ont aidé à cartographier la zone en moins de 48 heures suivant l'exemple du Népal. Tous ces efforts communautaires ont été mentionnés lors de la journée de l'Internet par le Président du Mexique en mentionnant comment les volontaires d'HOTOSM ont appuyé cette urgence nationale. Avec les membres de la communauté latinoaméricaine et mexicaine, je partage dans toutes les conférences et à chaque atelier l'importance de la cartographie humanitaire et comment nous pouvons améliorer la vie des gens et avoir une réponse non seulement après la catastrophe, mais aussi envisager des projets à long terme dans ceux où nous pouvons travailler en collaboration avec les gouvernements et la société civile pour réduire les dégâts causés par les catastrophes avec le soutien des cartes. J'ai donné un discours au sommet HOT l'année dernière intitulé «L'avenir de la cartographie humanitaire au Mexique» en mentionnant tous ces thèmes.

Je me sens très honorée que des amis comme Humberto Yances et Rodolfo Wilhelmy m'aient contactée pour connaître mon intérêt pour être un membre de HOT, et sans hésiter, je leur ai dit que c'est une grande reconnaissance. L'une des occasions que je voudrais mettre en relief avec le Centre national de prévention des catastrophes du Mexique est d'enseigner à ses fonctionnaires comment cartographier et créer un groupe interne de formateurs comme une garantie durable. Le bureau de la Stratégie nationale a mentionné qu'ils sont très intéressés pour soutenir cette initiative en commençant à cartographier les abris temporaires du Mexique, puis cartographier une zone pilote de risque potentiel qui peut montrer des résultats et motiver davantage de régions.

En ce moment, la plupart des histoires de réussite de HOTOSM sont en Afrique et le Sud-Est de l’Asie, je suis convaincue que ma contribution à l'organisation peut être de documenteer des experiences positives dans d'autres parties du monde afin d'atténuer ensemble les dommages causés par les catastrophes et de créer des protocoles efficaces pour la gestion des urgences.

Cokely Backcountry Skiing. Change set #45377916 by InfiNorth; approx Jan 21, 2017. Incorrect location of ski resort

Posted by Robert Copithorne on 7 February 2017 in English (English)

i would appreciate seeing comparisons of the area designated as abandoned ski resort, with the area designated cokely backcountry skiing. I believe their might be two areas, not one. If there are any old maps available to help resolve this issue, I would really like to see them.

I have an old brochure from the Mount Arrowsmith Ski Resort with a rough sketch of the ski trails, but nothing to tie the map in to. My view of the area I picked as a ski area fits the map better than the new area in my view. I can see how the new area could also be a ski area, but what distinguishes the areas?

Please reply as as I am anxious to resolve this issue.

Joining HOT

Posted by pratikyadav on 6 February 2017 in English (English)

I am PratikYadav and I work with Mapbox based in Bangalore, India. I came to know about OpenStreetMap and HOT after joining Mabox two years ago and been involved with both of them ever since. I started with taking part in the HOT projects where Mapbox team joins to help HOT in mapping and validation of various tasks over the year.From past few, month I have been working with HOT imagery coordination group to make sure the the request coming for imagrey can be quickly processed by Mapbox.

I worked with Mikel last year to understand the spatial spread of all past HOT tasks. 1

I am a big fan of HOT's work specially the concept of involving remote-volenters who are willing to help and link them to the people actually using these information on ground. My sepecific intrest this year will be to facilitate imagery coodination so that the most clear and recent imagery can be provided to mapping volenteers during crisis and how can we pre-identify and improve imagery coverage at hot spots. I talked about this last year at HOT summit (slides) and very excited to work with larger HOT team around this.

Location: Castro District, San Francisco, San Francisco City and County, California, 94114, United States of America

Fix for ‘Java-8 Will not Upgrade since Jan 2017’ under Debian Jessie

Posted by alexkemp on 6 February 2017 in English (English)

tl;dr: use the following from a console:

$ sudo apt install -t jessie-backports openjdk-8-jre-headless ca-certificates-java

JOSM needs Java-8. Open-Java-8 is available via Jessie Backports, but the current update (8u121-b13-1~bpo8+1) needs updated CA-Certificates which were not previously available from Backports (see Debian bug#851667). Unfortunately, Synaptic will not spot the updated certificates in Backports since it keeps holding back openjdk-8-jre, etc.. Thus, the need to use the console line as at top.

Unfortunately, I'd worked my way through the very-useful AskUbuntu question on:

“E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages”

...and had therefore removed all Oracle + OpenJDK Java8 (which meant that all JOSM was also gone & all my Java alternatives reverted to Java7). However, it also meant that I had a different error message on attempted reinstall of Java-8:

$ sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jre openjdk-8-jre-headless ca-certificates-java
  The following packages have unmet dependencies:
   openjdk-8-jre-headless : Breaks: ca-certificates-java (< 20160321~) but 20140324 is to be installed
  E: Unable to correct problems, you have held broken packages.

That allowed me to find a Unix Stack Exchange Q which solved the issue. Now I need to reinstall JOSM & make Java-8 the system default (sigh)...

When you 'discover' a city that is not on OSM

Posted by ff5722 on 4 February 2017 in English (English)

If you map in the West you may come to think that the major stuff in OSM is done, but in developing countries, you may discover major unmapped features.

天地图+OSM data Sentinel-2 (8 December 2016)

Location: Yongxi, Nayong County, Bijie City, Guizhou, China
Older Entries | Newer Entries