Diary Entries in English

Recent diary entries


Posted by Inneh Precious on 15 September 2018 in English (English)

On Monday 10th September 2018 I was engaged into a week OSM fight with OLODIA AMBROSE a great colleague and friend of mine. I was able to meet the target of digitizing over 3000 buildings on Friday 19th of September 2018. My major contribution on the mapping were at #Mpapetremor, #Ozuoba_RiversState and others. Well, I had to give in a lot ; my time, leisure and duties for it tenaciously because my competitor is a tough match. One of my secrete to this huge success was performing my best under fun. Fun is the secret ingredient to staying calm and doing best when the heat of competition is turned up high. I tell you this is one interesting thing or game I find doing aside playing chess and I'm glad to be a participant. Above all things glory God.

"Everything is connected" is not true

Posted by Ay0 on 15 September 2018 in English (English)

Contributed to HOT OSM Project: #5236 - Typhoon Ompong: Cagayan and Batanes Structures

There were a lot of remote structures that made me imagine what horrors could have happened there and no one ever found out about. Though, on the bright side, they could also be secret headquarters of super-heroes.

In the end, I realized that the popular saying "Everything is connected" is not true

Mapping session

Posted by Joanna R on 14 September 2018 in English (English)
  • On this day in our cwts++ class(September 13, 2018) we learned more about Mapilliary and OpenStreetMap, on how we use it properly and also we did some validation in JOSM. On our leaderboard, the class has already made 23,000++ edits in mapping. Its like 36,535 basketball courts. I was happy because our hardwork in mapping had a remarkable result. We were also taught on how we can improve our mapping skills and how we can map more precisely.

  • Some of my classmates are doing a task in the Philippines "PH road network improvement" in which they have to find out where the missing roads in the Philippines. Mapping is very fun and interesting but it’s hard because some of the imagery are cloudy and some buildings are really hard to be found. And our instructor discussed about the "SatNav System" or "Satellite Navigation System" that allows small electronic receiver to determine their location. And the "GPS Satellite Constellation" consists of a constellation of satellites transmitting radio signals to users. And also our instructor discussed about how GPS works. Weather, time of day and precipitation may affect the radio signal.

  • After the discussion we had a individual appraisal and by group, we show and tell to our instructor about our neighborhood edits using OpenStreetMap and JOSM. The instructions are login to your OSM account and locate your neighborhood after that, download the data in JOSM and filter your edits. We validated, and fixed our issues in our neighborhood using JOSM and also we double checked our fieldpapers that we marked so that we can review our edits in JOSM to resolve some errors. When you want edit maps using JOSM, you could download the map and you could use it online while iD editor in OpenStreetMap needs wifi access. Some of my classmates kave done a lot of edits in their neigborhood, they found out what establishments that are not specified in the OpenStreetMap.

  • There are some issues that our instructor showed us and asked us on how we can resolved it. We validated task 4993 in Lake Sebu, SCO, PH. We used the JOSM editor to validate our classmates’ edits. In this session of cwts++, we have learned a lot like the website Maproulette which our instructor introduced but sadly only few of my classmates can validate because they finished their assigned task and we had a seatwork to find a funeral or memorial homes and double checked the tags.

  • Every session that we enter gives us more knowledge that we need in mapping. I hope to learn and contribute more in the upcoming sessions. I would also like to thank our instructor, Mr. Erwin Olario for teaching us new things and knowledge in this field!.

  • Alt These are our tasks for today

  • Alt These are our tasks for today

  • Alt These are our tasks for today

  • Alt These are our topics for today

  • Alt These are our topics for today

  • Alt These are our topics for today

Philippines/CWTSS++ Project

PUP San Juan



Bus lanes viewer

Posted by acsd on 12 September 2018 in English (English)

I created viewer of bus lanes with simple editor. Viewer supported busway and lanes:psv schemas. Editor - only lanes:psv scheme. bus-lanes bus-lanes bus-lanes

Missing missing roads ;)

Posted by GOwin on 12 September 2018 in English (English)

I participate in the PUPCWTS++ initiative as a mentor for volunteers undertaking their National Service Training Program, collaborating with a the San Juan campus of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

One of our program objectives is to provide the participants with a better appreciation for spatial data, and the same time, provide them with digital mapping skills, by contributing to other open data projects. We also would like to impart the value of volunteerism in them, and what it takes to become (digital) humanitarians.

Back in June, before we started, this is how the Philippines looked like with ImproveOSM:

And today, this is how the country looks, compared to the rest of southeast Asia:

Apart from missing roads, they also work on mapping communities in many parts of the Philippines, especially around Lake Sebu in Mindanao, as well as mapping their own neighborhoods in Metro Manila, where they live, using a variety of open tools: FieldPapers, JOSM, and capturing street-level imagery usng Mapillary or OpenStreetCam.

They also hone their skills by working on other tasks, like a number of road network improvement we have in Kaart, and contributed to recent disaster response tasks in Laos, India, Japan, and various projects in Africa.

It is a delight to tell you that our young volunteers work on most of these tasks using their own time, outside the classroom setting. Our classroom sessions are dedicated to learning new skills or techniques, and to discuss issues encountered, or to exchange feedback.

I thought of adding a group photo, but realized that we never had taken the time to pose for a good group picture. :D)

If you see a #pupsjcwts hashtag in a changeset comment, it would be if you could leave them some constructive feedback.


Location: 14.592, 121.036

Looking for indigenous boundary maps for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil!!!

Posted by elizabethsanner on 11 September 2018 in English (English)

So I am fairly new to OSM and am hoping that this will be a great resource for my masters thesis which is focusing on changing indigenous territorial boundaries in Mato Grosso do Sul as a result of the past 2 (well 3 I guess since Temer replaced Rousseff after she was impeached..) I have some shapefiles for boundaries from 2010, but nothing more recent. I’m hoping that this is a good place to look for up-to-date data!

Paper Maps, Paper Maps!

Posted by apm-wa on 11 September 2018 in English (English)

A friend with connections in Riga obtained for me reprints of uncopyrighted Soviet military maps from the 1970s of all of Turkmenistan. I'm not sure how useful they will be as a lot has changed here since the 1970s (particularly the names of municipalities) but at least they will provide some historical names that may be useful and of interest. If anybody has experience working with Soviet-era maps and has tips or suggestions, please let me know!

Searching relations

Posted by pangoSE on 11 September 2018 in English (English)

Nominatim does NOT search route relations. I use taginfo & overpass.

The downside of overpass is that it:

  • does not use wildcards by default using the wizard
  • does not search case-insensitive by default using the wizard

Example of searching for the route Härnö Trail in Härnön: -> click the orange -> click overpass symbol -> from overpass you can click the map object and -> click to from there

Alternatively you can download Härnön in JOSM and search for the relation there. (much easier if you know where it is beforehand)

iD does not yet show relations, only memberhip of relations on objects. Also iD lacks a way to check that your edit did not break (the continuity of) one or more relations.

(edited to remove the incorrect assumption that it does not accept wildcards and to specifically mention route relations)

Open Coffee Map

Posted by biffe on 10 September 2018 in English (English)

When I'm buying coffee in a café, I'm disappointed to get it from a coffee dispenser. Therefore, I'd like to tag the avilable coffee making such as dispenser, french press, portafilter and so on.

Who would like to join the efforts in collecting and maintaing the data? What attributes shall be used.

update 2018-09-13: I've created a project page to track progress and to discuss data model:

Location: Kreuzviertel, Bezirksteil Kreuzviertel, Stadtbezirk 01 Altstadt-Lehel, Munich, Upper Bavaria, Bavaria, 80333, Germany

Just Cleaning Up. :-)

Posted by Orangeab on 10 September 2018 in English (English)

Reached my 1,800 edits today. God willing, I will continue on mapping places which I've been there or in places where the features are visibly clear. Thanks be to God... :-)

Location: Magapo, Albay, Bicol Region, Philippines

My edits in Bergen County, New Jersey

Posted by ComBlOp on 7 September 2018 in English (English)

I started mapping less than two months ago, with intent to improve the map where I live, Bergen County. I started with Paramus, as it is 10.5 sq mi (2nd largest by area after Mahwah) and I'm now done. Basically every building, residential areas, parking lots, paths... I've mapped a lot. I took a little break from Paramus to do the tiny Rockleigh borough, but then returned back to Paramus.

Nothing felt better than mapping the area around East Brook Middle School. After the terrible events of May 17, I could not be anything but satisfied after editing the area around it.

I'm very happy with my edits and #24 for US edits on HDYC. That's way better than I expected, honestly.

Next is Alpine, and I'm excited to map Alpine. Most of my changes have so far been, and will be buildings, as those are barely marked throughout Bergen County.

I would love to see Bergen County as one of the best openly-mapped areas in the world one day.

The location this post was given is of Paramus.

Location: Arcola, Bergen County, New Jersey, 07653, USA

Mapping in Mirpur, June, 2015 to December, 2017 using HOT Visualize Change

Posted by mmahmud on 7 September 2018 in English (English)

Kolorob project and android based application by Save the Children in Bangladesh utilizes OpenStreetMap for its base map and has contributed in mapping 36+ wards of Dhaka City. In the beginning of the project in 2015, a number of workshop were held to teach youth editing OpenStreetMap. Shortly after, pilot areas (Bauniabadh and Paris Road area in Mirpur) were mapped. After the success of the pilot, all 15 wards of Mirpur area was mapped. I used HOT Visualize Change to demonstrate the map changes from June, 2015 to December, 2017. As the mapper for the project, I mapped from May 2016 onward for mapping the wards in Mirpur and other wards. We conducted data collection in those areas. I asked the data collectors to have their GPS turned on in their devices and instructed them to walk along every road. Thus I got GPS tracks of every road in those wards and mapped them in OSM. Here is the link to the video I made.

Location: Sector 10, Dhaka, Dhaka Division, ১২১৬, Bangladesh

Our Mapping Session

Posted by mapper770 on 7 September 2018 in English (English)
  • Our session of CWTS++ for (September 6, 2018) was fun and interesting. It consisted of learning a new map site, learning more about Mapilliary and OpenStreetCam, and doing more JOSM validation. We started our session with a phrase “Mapping is not always about mapping buildings, roads, etc. It can be mapping other things like constellations or network etc.” Mapping has many possibilities which can be useful and beautiful in both ways. The first topic was our FieldPapers Assignment and our diary entries. We’re finishing our task on each of our neighborhood using FieldPapers and Mapilliary. Our goal is to capture our neighborhood and map it down in our FieldPapers. The last topic is JOSM Validation. It was interesting to know that we can validate and correct the corrections of other users. Furthermore, we learned how to validate correctly on the work of other users and we got re-informed again when to use our group hashtag in mapping.

  • We focused on how to use Mapilliary and OpenStreetCam correctly. According to its site, Mapillary is a collaborative street-level imagery platform for extracting map data at scale using computer vision. This goes with OpenStreetCam but a different version. There were some of my classmates that are having issues in Mapilliary and OpenStreetCam, but we managed to fix the issues so we can continue our work. We continued discussing on how to handle and upload files in the site. This is for the task in our own neighborhoods, which is capturing it using Mapilliary. One of my classmates had done a bit of capturing, so we used her captured images as an example. With the example shown, we captured the idea of how Mapilliary works and when it is safe to capture an image.

  • Another main highlight of our session is validating task 4993 in Lake Sebu, SCO, PH. We validated each of our own tasks by using JOSM. This part was fun because we had our own though of each comment, which is formal and informal. Even though we were having fun, we learned how to validate and correct the work of my classmates and other users. It was surprising to see that there were many tasks that just got invalidated because of the wrong nodes or highway type or missing roads etc. This task was important because my classmates did not even notice their error. So it was our job to let them know so they can re-map it correctly.

  • The last main highlight of our session is exploring Map Roulette’s feature. We did the challenges “Mis-tagged Castles in the Philippines” and “Mis-tagged funeral homes”. It was fun and easy to use because once you have click on the challenge, it will show its details and the location of the challenge. The “Mis-tagged Castles in the Philippines” challenge was done as an example for our activity. So we continued on finishing the “Mis-tagged funeral homes”. While doing the activity, I noticed how the A.I detected the nodes in one place. It appears that the funeral home that it detected was in the same place on the map all over. So it’s our job to correct what the A.I has detected incorrectly and to continue to finish their work. All of the activity was done using JOSM tool because were practicing more about JOSM. Overall Map Roulette is another website that we can help by mapping and correcting missing roads, building, mistagged features etc. It was cool to see how challenges give you a point after you have finished doing the challenge. It even had a leaderboard which shows all mappers with high points. I think the point system is a cool way to finish more challenges.

  • We are improving our skills in mapping because we are deepening our knowledge in different mapping tools and other website. I am thrilled to learn more about mapping because not only I can apply this to my skills but also I can help the world by doing a small act. Overall our mapping session was exciting and fun. Each session that we enter gives us more knowledge that we need in mapping. The session won’t be complete without my classmates and our director of CWTS++. I hope to learn more in the upcoming sessions.

  • These are our topics for today. Our Topics for today

  • Exploring Map Roulette Map Roulette

  • My classmates doing validation Validation

Philippines/CWTSS++ Project

PUP San Juan



Rewriting a commonly used template for the wiki

Posted by Tigerfell on 4 September 2018 in English (English)

I am currently planning to rewrite the Relation template for the OpenStreetMap-Wiki. You can find the current version along with its documentation in the wiki. In the following text I would like to outline the objections behind my proposed rewrite and invite you to participate.

Purpose of the template

  • common appearance and functionality (general goal of templates)
  • maintainability as the wiki markup is just saved once, so if a tool is obsoleted, it can be removed from the template
  • referring to relations in wiki articles
  • creating links to tools automatically
  • often used to document the mapping status of relations in wikitables

Reasons for a rewrite

  • This template is commonly used and causes many pages to exceed their page limits. You can see the effects of this on the bottom of the wiki page about Beijing buses.
  • Some of the tools featured in the template are not accessible anymore.
  • The default settings cause all tool links to appear, but this is often not desired by the editors.
  • The template’s code is hard to maintain as it is currently written in wiki markup including parser functions, thus not allowing line breaks or additional white spaces.

My suggestion

  • Rewriting this template using Lua, based on a forum discussion.
  • Changing its defaults regarding the appearance of tool links.
  • Dropping uncommonly used features.

A documentation of my proposed changes is located at

Please feel free to comment your suggestions here or into the forum thread already used.

Fixing multipolygons for the renderer

Posted by Harry Wood on 4 September 2018 in English (English)

Just thought I would re-iterate something imagico blogged about. Some important features may have disappeared from the map near you. You should check! Use the OSMInspector "Areas" view:


Generally the pink things are more serious data bugs on there I think, and they're worth fixing because it could be a big building, or local park, or some other important feature which may have recently disappeared. This is due to a change in the renderer. It's an improvement, but it means it is being more strict about these data bugs, so we need to fix them! (Yes we're fixing for the renderer, but these were worth fixing before because other systems will always have struggled with this data)

But these bugs generally involve the dreaded multipolygon relations, which are not the easiest thing to get your head around. I took a look just now and found quite a variety of different problems. Some fairly easy (e.g. this one just needed an "inner" way joining up properly to make the whole building re-appear)


...some not so easy. Problematic relations can be overlapped by other ways. Sometimes the multipolygon isn't necessary at all (created by mistake perhaps). In that case we should take the chance to convert it to a simple closed way, to make life easier for everyone ...but that can be a fiddly process in itself.

So I'm inclined to say we need to pro-mappers to attack this task. But being "pro" is all relative. Most mappers are probably like me. I'll happily wade in and try to tackle such things up to a point, but then sometimes I hit such a tangle of data, I just throw up my hands and think to myself "either somebody has thought carefully about this data, and there's a reason it's like this, or somebody's made a mess, or maybe both... but I can't tell" at which point I'm quite happy to leave it and move on to find an easier bug to fix.

So get stuck in! There's quite a lot to fix:

I wonder if there's a way of knowing where the BIGGEST multipolygon bugs are.

Posting suspicious features into OSMCha

Posted by manoharuss on 3 September 2018 in English (English)

I wanted to share how anyone can contribute to suspicious reasons in OSMCha. Recent events have only highlighted that we can tackle the problem of validation by working together and not by isolated efforts.

Wille is working on a new version of this process that would make it easier to flag features in OSMCha but I wanted to document this current way. When the new version lands in a few weeks time, I will document that process publicly too.

What do we need

  • a geojson of a OSM feature with metadata tags
  • a suspicious reason
  • a OSMCHA production token

1. Geojson of OSM Feature

At Mapbox, we use the standard geojson schema as per This is the reason why, OSMCHA was created to expect a geojson as an input when we want to post a suspicious reason. Please see the example geojson feature below.

Example Geojson feature with suspicious reason added in properties

{ "type": "Feature", "id": "relation!6517677!3", "properties": { "osm:type": "relation", "osm:id": 6517677, "osm:version": 3, "osm:changeset": 61091946, "osm:timestamp": 1532618174000, "osm:uid": 3769434, "osm:user": "manoharuss", "suspicions": [ { "reason": "Test", "is_visible": true } ] }, "geometry": { "type": "MultiPolygon", "coordinates": [ [ [ [ -93.0056853, 44.9494124 ], [ -93.00572, 44.9494125 ], [ -93.0057205, 44.9493367 ], [ -93.0059132, 44.9493373 ], [ -93.0059135, 44.9492833 ], [ -93.0060122, 44.9492836 ], [ -93.0060123, 44.9492746 ], [ -93.0061143, 44.9492749 ], [ -93.0061143, 44.9492634 ], [ -93.0062995, 44.949264 ], [ -93.0062998, 44.949214 ], [ -93.0064018, 44.9492143 ], [ -93.006402, 44.9491715 ], [ -93.0056853, 44.9494124 ] ] ] ] } }

Pain points
  • Currently, OSMCHA expects all the feature metadata tags and full geojson notation including geometry even though all we want is to post are featureId, feature version and suspicious reason. This will change in v2. V2 may also introduce a way to send in an extra instruction. Example: Profanity detectors can send a note mentioning which word was detected profane.

2. Suspicion reason

This can be any name that we can choose. From mapbox, we have decided that, we will have detections named similar to Mapbox: *detection type* apart from the reasons that we already have from osm-compare. When we post to OSMCha, the suspicious reason should be added into the feature properties.

{ ..., "suspicions": [ { "reason": "Test", "is_visible": true } ] }

Note: is_visible must be true, other wise the reason will not be visible in OSMCHA publicly

3. OSMCHA production token

Once you login into OSMCHA, a new production token is automatically generated for your account. You can usually snoop on any API request in networks panel in your browser, to see your token under the request headers.

Entire selected part in the above image is used for authorization.


With these 3 resources, we can do a POST request to OSMCHA API and it should show up on OSMCHA instantly.You can use this node js snippet to post to OSMCha.

This is my changeset I tested this script on 61091946. I have greyed out my token code, but it should work as is, if you test with your own production token.

We are aware that there is currently a lot of noise in OSMCha reasons and we are hoping to clean those up soon from our end. If you are going to have a service continuously running that posts suspicious reasons, please let Wille know.

Thanks :)

A New Pub in Ashgabat, and Turkmenistan's National Highways

Posted by apm-wa on 3 September 2018 in English (English)

Proper mapping requires ''en situ'' observation of the POIs to be mapped. Ann and I accordingly took a break from our other duties to investigate the Argentina Pub, conveniently located about 10 minutes' driving time from our house. Good pizza and salad (I was driving so alas could not partake of any nectar). It also offers steaks, which we will also investigate in due course.

That said we have broken 300,000 Mapillary images and 11,000 kilometers of imagery collection.

Last week I met the head of the Turkmen Motor Roads State Concern, and he confirmed my list of national highways was nearly complete (one highway was missing, which he provided but which still lacks a route number; I have added it to the list in the wiki). My next "armchair" project when duties preclude getting out on the road will be to identify the national highways with appropriate tags. If Turkmenistan is to become a transportation hub for Central Asia, it will need a decent online road atlas. OSM is currently the best map of the country available to the general public.

Location: Vosmushka, Bagtyýarlyk etraby, Ashgabat, 744012, Turkmenistan

Sentinel on AWS is now behind a paywall

Posted by AkuAnakTimur on 3 September 2018 in English (English)

I used to download "True Colour Imageries" (TCI) through the S3 bucket. It's simple and easy, via a web browser too.

All it takes is go over here, for example; focus on an area of interest. To download a particular scene, a URL to the S3 bucket will be provided. Bob's your uncle!

Since I don't have an always-on (and unlimited) connection, one single file (TCI only) is ~150MB tops. That shall be sufficient for a quick and rough edit.

Recently I've learned that the access to the L1C S3 bucket is put behind a paywall. Sad news, for me, indeed.

The only alternative left is downloading through the Copernicus Open Access Hub (free signups). However, this means that I will need to download the whole scene (various spectrums) in a compressed archive: ~700MB zipped file. Which is (uh, ahem) a little bit excessive on my side. Well, well.

Southern Balkan Province

Posted by apm-wa on 1 September 2018 in English (English)

Last week I took two days to tour parts of southern Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, hitting the towns of Etrek, Esenguly, and Ekerem, as well as the villages of Oboy and Daneata (the villages are now on the OSM map based on this ground truth). En route for the first time I filled a 32 Gb memory card with Mapillary imagery and had to install a backup SD card in the Samsung Galaxy smartphone I use for collecting ground-level imagery. Those images are being uploaded now. It may take a few days, since the internet here is so slow.

It will take a while to enter all the edits from data collected on this trip. Much of the M37 is now four-lane dual carriageway (divided highway) so I need to add all the U-turns I marked on the Garmin GPS as well as lots of POIs.

The route took me within a stone's throw of the border with Iran, but we only saw a few Iranian tractor-semitrailer rigs on the roads. Road conditions between Etrek and Ekerem were rough to very rough, with speed averaging 25 to 30 mph (40 to 50 kph). GPS traces have been uploaded from the Garmin nuvi, Pocket Earth, and Mapillary gpx file.

We discovered two new gas stations and confirmed a suspected third one. In Ekerem (formerly called Okarem, but the signs we saw are clearly labeled Ekerem) we lunched on Turkmen meat-filled somsas that cost 2 manat (about 57 cents) apiece from the only cafe in town while tailgating on the beach.

Location: Ekerem, Balkan Region, Turkmenistan

# Impact of HOT Micro Grant 2018 on #UniqueMappersTeam’s Mapping Contributions on #OpenStreetMap

Posted by vicksun on 1 September 2018 in English (English)

With the progressive receipt of the HOT micro grant 2018,our 2018 project objectives are being met.The amazing and striking impact of the grant on our project is the continuous and exponential increase of total edit contributions of geospatial data on OSM from UniqueMappersTeam with hashtag #uniqueMappersTeam which rose from about 4000 to 31,000 within the last three months of the microgrant project.HOT Microgrant 2018 is so impacting that we can now boost of 500 edits as average daily contribution checking from the missingmaps leader board. There is greater enthusiasm and passion to map for people in need ,not just as fun but as a necessary task by community members with availability of laptop,phone device and data subscription. It is also amazing to see the pulling effect of new members to the community and so our focus shifted to giving attention to new members ,who needs training and guide to start mapping on OSM .and existing members who are regularly engaged into OSM fight and mapathon to keep tracking their contribution.We now have our female community members as the global leading contributors on #letgirlsmap leader board : 1)Valerie143 with more than 8000 edits (5000 edits contributed in a 2-weeks Community OSMfight to emerge as the mapping queen of UniqueMappersTeam)as the 2)Geogeous Ella with more than 5000 edits taking second position on Leader board of Letgirlsmap globally 4)lovel4all with more than 2000 edits taking 4th position on the same leader board of letgirlsmap and the leaderboard of UniqueMappersTeam 5)Emmanuel Chidera ,a current final year male student of Computer science and the director,technical of UniqueMappersTeam takes 2nd position on the UniqueMappersTeam leader board with more than 5000 edits. These Micro grant induced OSMfight has impacted on the community such that the missing map leader board has become a daily watch for ranking of our daily, weekly and monthly contributions as well as knowing identifying active mappers of our team.The impact is so glaring ,that,even ,our senior friends,mentors and university dons have joined the mapping race ,with targets of beating those ahead.I was so excited ,when,Professor J.E .Umeuduji(our faculty Advisor) came up ro join the mapping race and currently rose from less than 50 edits to more than 1600 edits within the last two months of the Micro grant impact. Everyone is eager to be part of this Unique Team of OSM volunteer mappers-UniqueMappersTeam of Africa!!!!Everyone is eager to map for people in need ,vulnerable communities are being mapped and placed on a globally accessible web map of #OpenStreetMap, Thanks to #HOTOSM #Microgrant 2018 #Mapthediference2018#Pete Masters#Rebecca and Amelia for this amazing support!!!to expand and grow a passionate unique team of OSM mappers in Nigeria!!!!